The main points from this module are as follows:
- Normal or ordinary concrete is a mixture of water, cement, fine aggregates (sand), and coarse aggregates.
- The hydration of cement is responsible for the hardening in concrete.
- Concrete is a composite material, and its properties are related to those of its constituent materials and their relative proportions.
- Concrete is considered a three-phase material, that is, coarse aggregate, mortar, and interface.
- Cement paste is a suspension of cement in water.
- Mortar is a suspension of sand or fine aggregate in cement paste.
- Concrete is a suspension of coarse aggregate in mortar.
- The properties of fresh concrete are workability, setting time, temperature rise during setting, bleeding, and air content.
- Hardened concrete properties are compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, stress-strain curve, shrinkage and creep, permeability, and durability.
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