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Today, we will discuss an exciting topic in Talent Management, and that is about Employee Engagement. So, far we have discussed how organisations should be careful in the acquisition. Moreover, their practices should be to identify the talent and then put them on their jobs. Once they are placed on their jobs, that after you are through the orientation program and cultural embeddedness and cultural integration under the six principles of management; now the question arises, how will you engage them, and therefore employee engagement becomes very important. In this particular session, we will talk about employee engagement, then how to attract the employees for work engagement, tools for attracting employees, and deploying the talent post-COVID-19. Because we have recently faced the situation, and therefore, that the part has also been taken into consideration.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:38) Now, here the employee engagement is attracting, retaining and motivating employees. First, I would like to take the example that whenever we are talking about employee engagement, then it becomes the fore and foremost is the vigour; second is absorption, and the third is dedication. So, these three factors are very important if you want to keep any employee engaged. Because this work is done by Schaufeli, and one of my PhD scholars has worked on this in employee engagement Dr Richa Choudhary. And now she is an assistant professor in IIT Patna. And you will find that these absorptions have also been tried to study in Indian organisations. We will see how this is becoming a very important factor whenever you are talking about talent attracting, talent retaining and motivating the employees. So, vigour is basically energy. Now you have to keep your employees energetic. A simple example I would like to give you that is nowadays, many organisations are providing breakfast. And in that breakfast, you will find that it has been taken into consideration that protein,
vitamin and carbohydrates are provided in the appropriate quantity. So, a balanced diet is provided keeping in mind the health. And if your health is ok, then definitely that will support you in general. Many people are not in good physical condition, and they have done the miracles also, but they are exceptions. We are talking about the normal lay employee, and then we want him to be energetic, and he should contribute to the organisation. And therefore, vigour is very important. The second is about absorption, which he should be able to absorb. Like I always talk about culture fitness, a personality job fit and culture fitness, these two things are very, very important because you see your recruitment process is very strong. And you are taking talented people only. So, there will not be much doubt about that because otherwise also nowadays many applicants are there so a sensible organisation will recruit talented people only. If the organisation software itself is not correct or it is corrupt, then in that case, the organisation will not be able to acquire the right type of employees. But, in general, that applicant pool is so high, so strong that is you will get enough number, whatever an organisation wants to take enough number will be there those who will be talented. So, there is no problem, but the point is, it is retaining and motivating them. For retaining and motivating an employee, absorption is very important, and talent should be very active but not absorbed because of the mismatch. So, therefore, absorption is becoming very important. Another example is training. You provide training to talented employees, and if they are not interested in absorbing, your training will fail, but there can be mediocre employees, and if they are very strong absorber, they will be more successful. So, therefore, in that case, absorption has become very important in the engagement. And the third one is a feeling of ownership, a feeling of citizenship, a feeling of servant leadership. So, therefore, in that case, if these types of feelings are there, then definitely dedication will be there. So, what is important is vigour, absorption and dedication, which is told by Schaufeli. So, it is becoming very, very necessary that we understand that is how employee engagement is done by attracting, retaining and motivating. Now, because this is a somewhat advanced course; so basically, you might be learning about basic organisational behaviour, and that is about Maslow's motivation. How to motivate the employees, and what is Maslow's theory. So, Maslow's theory talks about a pyramid and this pyramid goes from bottom to top. And he talks about the first and foremost need of a human being is survival. And what is the survival need? Survival need is what minimum is required? It is the roti(food) and water and air. So, food, water and air are needed for survival. (Refer Slide Time: 07:31) After that, they will be physical security. So, when you are having the survival need satisfied, I will talk later on about this point, but the theory says that is when you will have satisfied the physiological need, then you will enter into the safety needs. Unless and until the physiological needs are not satisfied, you cannot enter into the safety needs or security needs, according to Maslow. And what are safety and security need? That is physical safety and security need. Once your physical safety and security needs are satisfied, then your social needs or belongingness needs will start. Because the organisation has taken care of you so now, you also want to repay the organisation, and therefore, you will take care of the organisation, which is belongingness. Once your belongingness need is fulfilled, then you will be going for the importance, that is, promotions status and, if that need is there, then we will say that they want to fill their importance in the organisation. After some period of working in the organisation, not in the beginning, but after some time what you feel that is, I am working for so many years here I am senior, so I should be given the importance. And finally, even after getting this importance after some years, you will find that people keep on coming, people keep on going and therefore, it is nothing new what I am doing. So, therefore, you will have the self-actualisation of what I have contributed to society, how I have spent my life it is worth, or it is not worth. So, therefore, those who are getting satisfied with the importance will then go for the self-actualisation processes. And that is why you will find that is it goes from the physiological to the safety, safety to social, social to the self-esteem and self-esteem to the self-actualisation need. So, this pyramid is given by Maslow, so is called the hierarchy of needs. Why is it called hierarchy? Because once one need is satisfied, then you are going step up then step up and then step up and therefore, this is called the hierarchy of needs. Now, we will connect this hierarchy of needs with employee engagement. How is it connected with employee engagement? Here you will find that it is just reverse employee engagement. The first and foremost is self-actualisation needs people who will be highly engaged. How will they be highly engaged? They will think that is what I can do for others. So, in self-actualisation are people who are high flyers. Please note they are high flyers. Who is the high flyer? They will reach their destiny very fast, whatever the goal targets they want to achieve. So, they will be having very fast because they are highly engaged in their jobs. So, who are highly engaged? For those who are having self-actualisation,
what can I do for others? That is why I am here. The second one is I inspire others to do their best. When people see that you are doing your best, so, then they feel highly motivated, and they also want to do something. So,
therefore, they will think like this, that is, I feel inspired. I love working here, and therefore, in that case, I told you the belongingness, ownership, psychological ownership and therefore, they say that yes, I love to work here means I want to continue. How is your working space? Then people say I am just earning bread and butter, and I have to work. And the other one is saying no. I am building the nation. So, therefore, in that case, those who are highly engaged will speak highly motivating words, and they will say that in this organisation, you have to contribute a lot. You will get the opportunity to contribute. So, therefore, it is the highest working space. And then who are these? These are the high flyers. So, highly engaged self-actualisation
and therefore, they are the high flyers. And as a result of this, their engagement is also high. They are highly self-motivated, and therefore, they are reaching their destiny very fast. The second one is engaged. So, what are their features? I am a vital part of the business. I am an important person,
and therefore, in that case, that is, I am a vital part of the business, I feel important at work. So, yes, I contribute, and I feel important. I am really busy, and I am highly stressed. So, therefore, they feel that they are under very much pressure, and they are very busy because they are engaged. They are achievers also because of their commitment to their jobs and organisations;
they are becoming achievers. I will leave if something much better comes along, but they are also looking for opportunities. And if they will get the opportunities because they are active, they are in momentum, and as soon as they get an opportunity, they will move away. They will leave the organisation and go to another organisation. The third because we are going here from the top down. If you have noticed the slide, we are going top-down. While in the case of Maslow's it was from the de-motivators to motivators. While here, in this case, we are going from the highly engaged to the disengaged top-down approach. So, the third one is highly engaged. Almost engaged, I know I am part of something bigger. My institute, my organisation, is doing great work. I am part of that organisation. I am almost engaged, but there are times when I am not. So, employees feel that he is doing the job, he is engaged in his job, but many times he is not. I am proud to work here, but I would not. One should feel that I am proud to work here, but one could not. Necessarily about it from the rooftops I might have if I T is there, and I am getting tempted by this. So, therefore, here it becomes very important in the belongingness that I might leave if I am tempted. Somebody will give me a better opportunity, more power and maybe the incentives, compensation and rewards which I like, or more involvement. Then definitely, I will be leaving this organisation, so they are almost engaged. There are no career developments prospects here, and when the person says that it is now, I have reached the peak, and now there is no career development. So, that is almost engaged, that is belongingness. The fourth category is not engaged. I am interested in overtime. So, he is interested in earning only. I have sick days; he wants to remain absent. He will say that I have so many sick leaves. So, why should I not go? Why is he so frustrated? Then he says that I have poor working conditions; they are not in my favour; it may be because of the relationship with the colleagues also. I do not like my manager; that is, the employee does not like to work with his manager,
his boss. And then he finds the people surrounding him; it is not the way he was looking for. I do not like my job much, but I get on with it, and even then, he starts disliking his job, which is really very alarming, that is why he dislikes his job, and therefore, it is because of them, that is he is not being identified by the organisation as a potential and a talented employee. I do not like my job much and what I get, and with it, I read job advertisements, and I keep on searching for job advertisements. Then there the last type of employees, the disengaged employees; they are not highly engaged. I am here for the money. I will leave when I can. I am not satisfied with the job I do; my work does not excite me. He is not actually happy with his job profile.
I am a clock watcher meaning whatever the time starts and ends the whole job when he comes on the job, he sees that is I have to go at this time, and then he has to wait for the end of the job. I am a job worth, so, therefore, he is looking for another job. So, what do we learn from this slide? We learned that whenever employee engagement is there, it depends; according to the slide, it depends on the motivation of the employee. However, this slide is not talking about self-motivation, but the motivation of the employees. The motivation of the employees talks about survival, security, belongingness, importance and self-actualisation. So, here the one side is the motivation of the employee. Another side is highly motivated, highly engaged, and then it will be reversed because survival means that a person is disengaged. He does not want to work. Can we measure this? Yes, we can measure this with the help of the questionnaire scale what we say scale, and we have taken the scale of the Schaufeli to measure this for employee engagement. So, what are the consequences? Consequences are attracting the employees, the right type of employees. (Refer Slide Time: 18:55) Leaders from the 50 best employers believe they are attracting the people they need for business success. So, naturally, when you do the survey, and then you identify the 50
best employers. So, talented people will like to join those 50 best employers because they feel that something will be there. After all, it has been assigned and rewarded as the best employer, so definitely the organisation does something for him. At other organisations, they say they are attracting the people they need. Even the competitors are there, and competitors are looking for opportunities to grab talented employees from the competitor. Because when you work, people know what you are contributing and therefore want to catch you. Wise employers are willing to expend extra resources in recruiting to save money and reap greater rewards in the long term. Furthermore, naturally, it becomes essential how you identify the talent and attract the talent and retain them, which is becoming greater rewards in the long-term programs. So, these attracting employee’s points have been taken as the reference from the globe and mail report on business magazine 2016. So, what are the different tools used for engaging the employees? Develop interpersonal relationship dynamics is becoming very important. If the employer-employee relationship is strong, there will be more belongingness and less turnover. (Refer Slide Time: 20:40) Always bring fresh people, new young talented employees they will talk about new things, and new views will emerge. So, it has to be very clear that we should always try to bring in fresh and talented people. A company newsletter can then communicate with them. Nowadays, the e-newsletter is there. You can communicate through the newsletter, and there is no need to print the newsletter, and through the organisational portal, knowledge portal, you can excess to that newsletter. Furthermore, the company should have a newsletter and what has been done, what is likely to be done in future and what are the conditions of the workers. So, that support is to be there and as a result of which the newsletter will help. Define your target employee; always, this is very, very important. What type of people you want; you want the people for research, want the people for the teaching and want the people for the training. So, therefore, in that case, I explain your target that is precisely what type of employees do you want. Share your stories, and then we should encourage and promote the many employees. So, they can share their stories. (Refer Slide Time: 22:00) The next point is the job advertisement; how do you advertise the job and therefore, from a job advertisement, it is clear what you are looking for, are you looking for talented employees? The way you described the job, how you communicate with the external customer, that is potential employees that will decide what type of employees you want. Referrals: whose reference you have given. Resume screening: this is very important; that you have to be very careful in screening. Here one is the eligibility criteria; another one is the screening criteria. I always tell my friends to understand the screening criteria. To screen the criteria, you should be in the top 10. You might be in the top 100. However, if you want to do the screening criteria, you are supposed to do resume screening, and therefore, proper screening is to be done so the correct type of talent will join your organisation. Interviewing candidates: now, there are so many phases of interviews [FL] it is not a single-phase interview. Interview with the customer, interview with the project director,
interview with the HR person, interview with the technical person, interview for the artistic positions. So, therefore, interviewing the candidates should be done very appropriately. Interview summary tools: The way interview is done has to be honestly written in the newspaper. So, that you understand that the host mentoring is there. The last part is redeploying the talent post-COVID because we have talked about the COVID effect, so how it is to be done. (Refer Slide Time: 23:47) To survive and thrive amid COVID-19 crises and beyond, organisations have to now focus on redeploying. Now, they will come back, and there are a lot of changes in the employers, not only the physical, but you will find that the shapes have been changed. Somebody has become very fat; somebody has become very thin. So, then somebody’s face has become longer and somebody's face has become round.
Therefore, in that case, that is how to now focus on redeploying and re-skilling talent with better data insights. You will have the data, from which you will find out what impact has been bought by the COVID, whether people were highly engaged and performed the job people were engaged in worries and conscious. Moreover, therefore, in that case, there is a need for this talent with better insights. Market awareness, who are the competitors and what type of jobs they are doing and an agile organisational culture where you have to also find out what type of the organisational culture is there, is it matching, or it is not matching. The international labour organisation has forecast that the pandemic could reduce global working hours by nearly 7 per cent in the second quarter of 2020. So, it has become a very important observation that ILO, the International Labour Organization, has said that
the pandemic has affected nearly 7 per cent in the second quarter of 2020.
Equivalent to 95 million full-time jobs, and therefore, in that case, we will find that really deploying the talent post-COVID has become more tough and difficult. Because if you want to make them the applicant in your organisation then definitely you will require them for full-time jobs, and they are into that mindset. (Refer Slide Time: 25:46) So, Mckinsey's analysis suggests that in regions as diverse as Africa, Europe and The United States, up to a third of the workforce is vulnerable to reduced income naturally; we are also facing this type of situations in India, where most of the people might be having the question of their earnings especially lower strata. To reduce the income and the furloughs or layoffs as a result of the crisis because organisations do not have the orders, and therefore, there will be layoffs also. Many millions of jobs could be lost permanently. The nature of jobs and business that might have been stopped, and as a result of which you will find that they will be losing their jobs there. In Europe and the United States, just two service industries, accommodation and food service plus wholesale and retail, means you see that is how these are the jobs which are getting affected. Because the people are not going outside nowadays, we not they are not buying anything from outside for the food and the hotel industry restaurant industry especially. So, in Europe and the United States, just two service industries account for around 40 per cent of the vulnerable jobs, 40 per cent of jobs. So, they will lose their jobs, and there is no certainty that they will be able after post COVID they will be able to come on the job. Among occupations, more than 80 per cent of customer service and sales roles are at risk. Because they will not be able to sell, or they will not be having that requirement by the people because people’s earning has reduced. So, they will not go for that particular earning rather than they will be at risk. (Refer Slide Time: 27:53) So, what we can say is Mckinsey suggests that to deepen the effectiveness of such efforts when 40 per cent of jobs are becoming vulnerable, 80 per cent of jobs will not be taken back by the people. Then the creativity and mindset are required by the employees,
and here is the role of the talent that is what talent can do. Governments and other key institutions can quickly create a more granular picture. So,
the government has to be very careful, and the institutions like the IITs IIMs and the leading institutes have to quickly create a more granular picture of where jobs are at risk and where there is additional demand for labour. So, we have to understand where the jobs are terminating and whether the jobs are demanded. So, the demand for jobs is, especially in the healthcare industries. So, if the healthcare industries are looking for these types of jobs, then definitely we have to develop and nurture the talent if this type of demand for labour is there. The higher the demand for labour will be there, the better will be the development of the healthcare sector, and the better will be the opportunities for employment there. And when we are talking about the world, the world is becoming vulnerable for these jobs, so those jobs will not require manpower, but alternative jobs. A simple example is mask making, sanitisers, and medical science is there; then, these types of industries will be looking for more and more employment opportunities.
So, we have to see that in the case when we can once develop the jobs based on healthcare and looking to the future businesses on the other side, there may be the the the problem of losing the jobs also. But dear friends here are the definition of talent; if your manpower is talented, they will identify the alternate jobs that may be related to the IT industries, maybe related to the healthcare industries, maybe somewhat somehow. So, because people are getting depressed and stressed at their workplace and therefore, they may look for outgoing because of their mindsets and, maybe somewhat tourism may also take place. So, these will be the areas where you can identify the employees, engage them and get the economy on the right front. (Refer Slide Time: 30:52) So, the food and beverage industries, as I mentioned, are losing, clothing and retail are there, and then you will find that in the support and accommodation services high wage jobs are there, automobile services, education jobs will be reduced in millions. Then the travel and attractions. Low-income jobs are defined as making a weekly income of less than dollar 800 and a fine of 1.47. So, travel and attraction are there. Membership association and organisations, sports and entertainment and Real estate are also included. So, this is the scenario from where the low-income jobs are defined as making weekly income is becoming important. (Refer Slide Time: 31:40) So, finally, the future of work encompasses change in work, the workforce, and the workplace. So what work can be automated with increasing robotics, cognitive and technology? What work can be done by and with smart machines that are to be seen?
And the workforce who can do the work with the new talent platforms, who can do the work [FL] that we have to see. So, first, we have to see what type of work is there. Second, we have to see the workforce who can do the work, how they will leverage the continuum of the talent from the full time to freelancers for managing their services, then the gig workers and the crowds are there. Deloitte is the NOW of work; it is a new reality, the new normal. The organisations can use these key pillars and reorganise how work is done, where work is done and by whom the work is done, and what the workplace does there. So, the work workforce and workplace that has to be redefined and with the new combination of collaboration teaming and digital reality technologies, how are the workplaces and work practices reshaping and where work is to be done. So, this is all about employee engagement. Thank you.