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So far, we have discussed different Talent Acquisition models. And now, we will see some of the case studies that how practically organizations are making Talent acquisitions in different Indian organizations. (Refer Slide Time: 01:01) So, we will talk about Talent Acquisition Practices by various organizations. First, we will take Infosys Technologies, and here we will talk about the stakeholder expectations and the key challenges, managing scale – talent acquisition, managing scale for the competency enabling because we are having the high potential employees. If you want to get work done from them so, their talent has to be upgraded with the different skills, which is called competency enabling. And, managing the risk is future-proofing the organization and managing diversity. So, these are the different aspects that we will be discussing in this particular session. So, one by one, session-wise, I will take the different companies like Infosys, IBM, FedEx, Google, and TCS. We will compare their practices and discuss their practices. (Refer Slide Time: 01:40) Now, you see that in the knowledge economy, it becomes very important that how do you get it, how do you use it, how do you learn, how do you build it, how do you contribute, how do you distribute that particular knowledge which is done by talented employees. For this purpose, this becomes an important aspect that if you want to win the competition, you should have talented employees with you. Every day new challenges and issues are emerging, so to identify the solution, you require the warriors who will be able to find out the solutions for these different types of unforeseen issues. (Refer Slide Time: 02:35) So, stakeholders' expectations and the key challenges are the shrinking base of the experienced talent. Now, we know that in Z Generation in India, the young population is there, and if a young population is there, then definitely there will be the shrinkage of the experienced people. And, experience plays a very great role which we should understand. However, because of the technology, many times the technology is compensating the experience, but then that is the wrong concept. It is not possible to control that particular equivalency of this talent that is matching the experience of the experienced people or employee with the talent of the young people, with the help of technology. But, many leaders have understood that technology will replace human intelligence, but ultimately it is human intelligence that controls technology. So, it is a man behind the machine, which is very important. As there is a complex area of geographies and thus we can talk about the global village. When we talk about the global village, then definitely you cannot say that geographies are defined. Geographies are becoming infinite. And therefore, we have to do those practices which will be applicable according to the culture. I would like to take the example of 1991 that is the LPG liberalization, privatization, and globalization, and then Kellogg's introduced the corn flakes, which was not successful at that time as it is successful now. So, that time it was not successful because people thought that the organizations who entered during the LPG time thinking that there is a middle-class segment and middle-class segment will have the corn flakes for breakfast. But, the housewife has a responsibility in the Indian culture to prepare fresh food and serve it to her family members. But now there are a nuclear family and dual-income family, and hence it is successful now. So, there is nobody to prepare the food. Even chapatis are also ordered from outside. So, therefore, it is becoming a very complex array of geographies. The services are changing, and in demographics, the age is changing, income is changing, the gender combinations at the workplace are changing. As all the different dimensions are changing, parameters are changing which are affecting the overall work environment, work culture; then you cannot say that the old expectations will continue today. And, if the expectations are changing of the stakeholders, organizations definitely have to perform accordingly. So, how do we accept these challenges? The first is managing risk in the aggressive labour market. Here we see that many software has been developed which are screening the applications with the help of keywords. So, it is the computer that is deciding who should be called for the interview. And double-digit attrition is there, in which it becomes very important that how we are going to manage employee's performance and their willingness at the workplace. And, while managing the risk, we also have to retain the employees. If you want to retain the employees, then it becomes important to give them those facilities in which they will be satisfied, and they are satisfied with the job profile. If the job profile is challenging, the job profile is attractive, then talent will definitely continue for a long time, but if the job profile is monotonous, then, in that case, the talent will not continue for a long period of time. Now, there are changes to compliance and regulatory practices. We have seen the number of ads has introduced, and several amendments have been made to the labour laws. Therefore, it becomes the compliance at the workplace which has to be changed. An example of the service industry can be considered. In the service industries, we find the number of woman employees is increasing. In the factories act 1948, there was a provision that after sunset and before sunrise you could not employ a woman worker, but when we are talking about the KBOs; Knowledge-Based Organizations, BPOs, and the IT services, the hotel industries then definitely in that case this particular provision will not work. So, the amendments should be there and, then according to amendments safety is provided to them to pick from the home till dropping at home, that type of the cab services are to be provided by the employer. So, therefore, changes in compliance are compulsory to retain the talent, managing the talent, and attracting the talent at the workplace. Then comes the introduction of market competitive benefit programs across geographies so, if the market-competitive benefits program is there when we talk about how your competitors are performing and how you can take the edge over them. So, in these market competitive benefit programs, I would like to give an example of the washing machines. So, when we talk about the X Company's washing machine, the top-loading and Y Company's washing machine which is front loading, and you want to make use of those washing machines. Then, and nowadays also there are heaters; an inbuilt heater is there. So, if this type of marketing competitive benefit programs is introduced, then definitely that will affect the different segments of the society. So, for managing the risk and stakeholders' expectations, there is a need to understand how we can lead in the Business market and manage the execution. (Refer Slide Time: 09:49) So, larger volumes with increased complexity; I have given the example of the washing machine, and, in that case, if the larger volume is introduced, it is increasing the complexity in the competitions, complexity in the market in the business. So, when you are talking about supply chain management when you want to introduce that particular product to be available in the market, and then, in that case, proper supply chain management must be there. Another very interesting example is of these different types of these snacks which are available in the market. Another challenge is managing diversity. Demographic diversity is there that is a nationality and even in India also, now you will find it is a common scenario where the employees are from the different countries, and therefore, they have the different nationality, and according to the different nationality they have to work. Then there is a gendered phenomenon that is when the male or female employees are working and are equal in number. So, therefore, diversity has to be managed in the work culture. So, therefore, that becomes managing diversity.
Age – so, now the young population is in such a large number that, if any recruitment is there, you will find a large number of very young applicants. So, it becomes important to change the HR policies according to the age of the young applicants. For example, their average age is 23 to 25; then, in that case, short-term benefits will be more attractive for them rather than the long-term benefits. So, for generation Z, a pension is having no meaning rather than CTC is having the meaning for them cost to the company and cash in hand. So, that is becoming important, and if these types of demographic variables are there, then definitely we have to manage the talent. Another important point is of talent is their family status, which is making people work. So, there is a level; there is an expectation that yes, you will work at this particular level, and then you will go up. So, these family statuses are also putting pressure on the employees, and they have to work accordingly. They have to perform accordingly; they have to demonstrate that they belong to that particular class. So, therefore, these are the certain issues that will be requiring talent acquisition practices. (Refer Slide Time: 12:57) Now, here we will talk about a particular case study. In this case study, there is a growth curve, and in the growth curve, we see the employees. So, employees are going in these standard numbers. So, first-year is year 96, so, from 96 to 2004, you will find how the number of employees has been increasing. So, while maintaining the quality of the number of applications proceed, the number of candidates tested, interviewed, and the number of offers made. So, here the number of offers made is 2 per cent, 1 per cent, 1 per cent, 1.5 per cent, and 1 per cent. And, when the number of applicants is the young population, in the young country like India; India is a young country, then the process has to be filtered. And, if filtration, if you go for the calculation of the percentage, you will find a very small percentage is there. So, out of the small percentage, who are the persons? Naturally, when you are going for the 2 per cent or 1 per cent selection so, they are the talented employees, they are filtered, and after filtration, those who will join you are highly talented employees. And, if the highly talented employees are there, then again, according to diversity, also you have to manage and retain the talent. (Refer Slide Time: 14:28) Now, the talent pool in India, we will see how it has been working for the different companies. Like in the case of TCS, Cognizant, Infosys, Wipro, and the HCL. So, here one note I would like to read that is Cognizant follows the January – December financial year while the other four Indian IT firms follow April to March accounting year. The latest pool here is the January to December 2017. So, therefore, based on the company fact sheets, this has been developed. The turnaround in the pace of the hiring at the top five IT firms like this TCS, Cognizant, Infosys, Wipro, and HCL in April to June 2018 follows a year of tepid employee additions. So, you will see the net hiring for the financial year April – June in 2018 for this quarter and then next quarter. So, here we will find the number of applicants net hiring; in some companies is increasing, as we see in the TCS and Infosys there is a positive response. While in the case of Cognizant and Wipro, we have found that there is a negative response. So, we have to see the business scenario and the work and business towards these economic conditions, and according to that, talent acquisition practices have to be understood. (Refer Slide Time: 16:39) We are talking in the era of the new education policy, and all of us know that the new education policy is making a more skill-oriented and employable population. So, if you want to generate or develop your students, they should have a strong competency for dealing with the jobs. So, in higher education, part-time and distance education programs are the choices. Like you are studying online courses. So, therefore, in the online courses on these higher education levels courses, you are studying. Because many of you are executives at different organizations, and many of you want to make an additional profile. And, for making the additional profile even after the long experience, you want to go for higher education through this particular portal. And, that is making a country competitive. Not only the organization, but a country is becoming competitive. Thus, these are certain courses. Then in the ILITE and the E-learning, web-based integrated training management systems are there, and then this particular NPTEL is there, Swayam is there, MOOC is there, and there are several courses. When you refer to the reports of the world economic forum, you will understand what the future requirements of the different knowledge and skills are. So, if different knowledge and skills are required, then, in that case, this E-learning process is becoming very strong. Ultimately, what an employee and an employer want perfection in delivery. And perform their particular job more efficiently and more effectively because this process is not for obtaining the certificate, rather than for gaining the knowledge. So, if you want to gain knowledge, E-learning is very important. A 25 per cent of the training through E-learning modules has become successful nowadays. So, more and more people want to go for this particular E-learning module. Now, we talk about entry-level training. When we are talking about higher education, especially those who are engineering graduates and management graduates, they are taken as trainees. However, you will find in now many courses highly reputed courses and of the institutes. The students are also having work experience of a minimum of three years in an average for the number of students in a class. So, the entry-level training is becoming very important for those who are freshers and joining the MBA course or the engineering course and then they are going for the projects or summer training or internships and all. So, for 14 weeks, the comprehensive finishing schools are available, and therefore, in that case, this type of courses they are making them strong at the entry-level training. All these programs which have been preferred are the benchmark programs against the US standards. And, therefore, we talk about managing the scale, the E-learning process, and entry-level training has become very crucial. If you can manage that, then definitely that will give the wonderful response of the competency enabling. Then leadership development: 3 tiered program focus on strategic leadership, business leadership, and operational leadership roles. Now, you see, whenever we are talking about policymaking and the long-term policy. So, it becomes important that strategic leadership has the vision. What type of vision is there, and if that vision is there, then definitely the employees will be able to convert their competency into the results. To convert that competency into the results, it becomes very important that there is a strategic business. Strategically you should be planning. Like in our areas, if you talk about strategic HRM. So, strategic HRM is giving you the direction that what type of manpower will be required, when and how and where there will be less manpower, there will be the surplus manpower, where we have to go for recruiting the manpower, identifying the talent, and getting work done from the talent. So, therefore, strategic HRM human resource management is becoming a very critical point where the organization has to decide whether they have to go by the tall structure or they have to go by flat structure. Then there is a business and operation leadership role. So, on one side, you have to cut the cost, do the operating leadership. Therefore, operational leadership will ensure that you are getting the best quality output at the minimum cost. But, the business does not stop here. A business stops with the selling of those products, and therefore, the business strategies must play a very important role. Now, in leadership development, there is a competency enabling for the better management for self. Competency is knowledge, attitude, skills, and habits. In my previous session, I have mentioned the KASH model; knowledge, attitude, skills, and habits. So, this competency will enable a person to better management of self. So, when he uses his knowledge, has a positive attitude, has enough learning skills, and the habit is also pretty very much related to the profession. So, one example is that a professional habit should be organized. I am having the habit of everything being organized. So, that is also an example. So, competency enabling is for better management for self, teams, clients, and business. It is for the individual, and also making the team, the people those who are working together in teams and the clients and businesses competitive. So, therefore, the customers and because when you are talking about the stakeholders, it is 360 degrees nowadays. Stakeholders are not only customers; stakeholders are not the only owner, but rather there are a lot of persons who are the stakeholders. Now, continuing education, like this; certification programs for the key skills are there. Now, what is important? It is not the qualification for a certificate. The knowledge requires doing the job in the best way, and one can do the job in the best way by learning through the certificate programs. So, certificate programs will ensure that a person has been exposed to that particular learning. And, learning and development and training lead to working on that and therefore, a certification program for the key skills is becoming a very important issue. Then comes the role-based training for the competency enhancements. So, now every employee is superior, is subordinate, is a colleague, is a boss, is an employee, and he is an entrepreneur, he is a leader, he is a manager. So, therefore, different roles are there. So, sometimes it is an interpersonal role, sometimes it is a technical role, sometimes it is a strategic role. So, every role has to be performed by these employees, and this continuing education will help him to be an effective leader. So, to be an effective leader, it becomes very important that the employees have the certified programs. The next point is the role-based training for competency enhancements. At the entry-level like here, we are talking about the comprehensive finish finishing school program like an orientation program and then the benchmark against the US standards or Indian standards at least. And, here is the role-based training for the competency enhancements. So, what is the difference? The difference is that is earlier, we were talking about the entry-level comprehensive finishing school, while here, experienced people are there. They already have basic knowledge and skills, and therefore, the development party will take place here. So, entry-level training has to coordinate with continuing education, and if they can coordinate with continuing education, they will be successful. So, it becomes important that, whenever we talk about competency enabling, these points are very important, that is the E-learning, entry-level training, leadership development, and continuing education. When you go by all these dimensions, then nobody can stop you from being called the king of talent management because you are managing the talent; you are getting the talented people by doing these all types of jobs. (Refer Slide Time: 26:53) Now, the next point is managing risk and future-proofing the organization. So, naturally, based on these strategies, which we have discussed in this particular slide, managing scale competency enabling when you decide then you have to make it full proof for the organization. How is it done? So, before 2000, it was the individual incentive at senior grades. They were given for an individual if it was satisfied.
Then in the sales and consulting, how it will be done for the particular employees before 2000, and that was the training program focus on the higher differentiation, a business benefit that is ploughed back to employees. But, in 2001, company performance and linked incentives were there. So, that company performance and the variable pay what we say, variable pay. So, therefore, when you include the fixed pay plus variable pay, you see the variability in compensation on the y-axis. So, this variable pay starts here. In 2001 it became very important that how you will be linking the performance with the rewards, with the payment and these company and performance-related (Refer Time: 28:29) that has led towards the better results. Now, in 2002 company performance-linked incentives, here this company performance was linked in incentives, but here you will find that it has gone to the purpose of ESOP; Employees Share on Profit, and therefore, ESOP is becoming the buzzword. And, if you want to retain the talent, you want to motivate the talent, then you have to share the profit, and the sharing of profit is called the ESOP; employee sharing on profit, and therefore, he takes the reasonable and justified share which he is employed he is supposed to gain. From 2003 onwards, the company performance-linked incentives were started. Because, the IT industries were totally getting the leading positions and therefore, the team performance, the project culture, project system that was becoming very popular and therefore, the team performance became the key issue in case of deciding the salaries and the payment and rewards and recognition of the employees. Then individual performance: so, it is crystal and clear that it is not like that two-wheel work and rest two or three will get the benefit of whatever the two has done. No, there should be a proper justification. Those who have performed will be getting these salaries, and those who will not be performing will not be getting the variable pay. Salary will be there, but no variable pay or the shares on profit. And therefore, individual performance is becoming very important. Here we will see that these ESOP, variable pay, variability in the compensation, focus on higher differentiation, business benefits, all these are related to the performance allowance, you perform better you will get the particular allowances. (Refer Slide Time: 30:55) So, how to future-proof the organization? The talent engagement for the enhanced retention is alternate career tracks; this is also important. Now, like in our MBA program, we have dual specialization. So, the student can go for the third specialization also through the electives. If he is offered, he selects the electives. So, there will be his third specialization. Now, because you never know, today you are leading with the finance background; tomorrow, you may require to work into the marketing, and maybe the day after tomorrow, it is the operations. So, therefore, career tracks may keep on changing. Many times, we get a call from the students that their specialization in finance and company has come, but they are given the job of selling the finance schemes and all. So, therefore, they want to make the alternate career track, and they go for the alternate career track. Skill sets and the locations are there – that what skill sets do you have and what is your location. The next point is Continuous and role-based enabling programs in which they can register and they can get trained. Health and lifestyle enhancement initiatives and employee assistance programs are there. So, a comprehensive package is there where the employee and not only the employee but their family members have been taken into consideration through the initiatives and employee assistance. The next point is managing the global talent deployment that is a scale, speed, complexity, and efficiency, where you have to gear up and manage according to the demand of the time. And, finally, compliance in increased complexity and changing immigration scenarios, and if you do that, the scenario changes you can do that then, definitely that becomes very important. (Refer Slide Time: 32:45) The last point which is to be taken care of is managing diversity—creating a diverse, inclusive and positive work environment. So, in the beginning, I have talked about diversity, age, gender, and economy. So, focus on the nationalities and gender, capability builders, cultural transformation, role models, and enablers for inclusivity. So, your leadership style has to be inclusive. Infosys women's inclusivity network like in the gender also, we have to consider the female workers, who are also supposed to be the part of the organization and therefore, our policy HR policy should justify. Customizing the HR service offerings across diverse internal customers and the employees should be considered. If you are keeping satisfied with your services or your offerings or there is diversity with the type of employees you are having, then definitely your internal customers will be happy. And if they will be happy, then definitely, they will be able to perform in a better way. So, this is all about the first organization that is Infosys, and how Infosys is doing, and the other IT-enabled organizations are performing. The rest of the organizations we will talk about in the next session. Thank you.