The main points from this module are as follows:
- Transmission lines are protected by overcurrent, distance, and pilot relaying systems depending on the requirements.
- Distance relays are widely used and over 63 percent of the total lines are protected by distance relays.
- The two types of distance relay are Phase distance relay and Ground distance relay.
- The operation of distance relay is mainly based on impedance measurement.
- The settings of phase distance relays are done on the basis of the positive sequence impedance while those of ground distance are carried out on the basis of zero-phase-sequence impedance.
- Reactance relay is not affected by fault resistance and is therefore suitable for protecting the short transmission lines.
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