The Root System of a plant constantly provides the stems and leaves with water and dissolved minerals. In order to accomplish this the roots must grow into new regions of the soil.
Root Apical Meristem
The Root Apical Meristem is a small region at the tip of a root in which all cells are capable of repeated division and from which all primary root tissues are derived. The Root Apical Meristemis protected as it passes through the soil by an outer region of living parenchyma cells called the Root Cap. Cells become specialized for specific functions in the zone of differentiation, or maturation zone.
Asymmetric Cell Division in Root Development
The continuous formation of Root Cell types occurs through Asymmetric Divisions within the Stem Cell Niche. Within the Root Stem Cell Niche, there is an organizing center comprising a small number of cells that divide infrequently and are termed as the Quiescent Center (QC).
Vascular Tissue Development
Plant Vascular Tissue is derived from the Cambium and Procambium, which are meristems that contain long thin stem cells that divide down their long axis.Vascular Tissue comprises the Xylem and the Phloem, the main transport systems of plants.
Xylem and Phloem facilitate the transportation of water, minerals and food throughout the plant. Xylem carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves whereas Phloem carries the food prepared by the leaves to different parts of the plant.
Root Branching in plants is a cardinal process of root system formation and an essential constituent of plant health. Lateral Root formation is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and it determines the characteristic architecture of the root system and limits its developmental plasticity.
Lateral Root Development
Lateral Roots are produced when cells in the pericycle, the layer of cells surrounding the central vascular cylinder, begin to divide, form additional cell layers that push through the outer cell layers of the primary root, and ultimately organize a second root meristem.
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