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The types of solar radiation received on earth are
Direct
Diffused
Reflected
A Pyrheliometer measures direct normal radiation using a solar tracking system.
A shading ring is used to measure diffused radiation.
The Campbell-Stokes recorder records the duration of the sunshine.
Samuel Langley made the first measurement of the spectral distribution of the sun.
Irradiation is irradiance over a period of time.
Declination of the sun the angular displacement of the sun from the plane of the earth's equator.
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Angles in Radiation Geometry:
Surface azimuth angle (γ)
Hour angle (ω)
Surface slope (β)
Declination angle (δ)
Latitude (φ)
The angle of incidence is related to all the other angles according to the following equation:
cos θ = sin φ (sin δ cos β + cos δ sin β cos γ cos ω) + cos φ (cos δ cos β cos ω - sin δ sin β cos γ)
+ cos δ sin β sin γ sin ω
For a horizontal plane, β = 0
For a collector facing due south, γ = 0
Using the Hour Angle the day length can be calculated.
Solar Time: passage of time with reference of the position of the Sun in the sky.
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