The common forms of energy that we use are as follows:
Exothermic chemical reactions produce heat energy; thermal energy can be converted into mechanical energy by using heat engines.
World energy consumption in 2018 was about 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent.
More than 40% energy distribution is met through electrical supply systems.
The bulk of the energy we consume comes from fossil fuels.
Alternate sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy, bioenergy and tidal energy.
Different modes of exploiting solar energy:
Solar cells/photovoltaic modules for the generation of electricity
Flat/tubular panels for solar hot water system
Concentrators to generate intense heat for turbine
Methods of solar energy utilization:
Direct methods: thermal and photovoltaic
Indirect methods: water, wind, biomass, wave, OTEC, Marine currents
Devices for solar thermal energy collection and storage:
Liquid flat plate collector
Evacuated tube collector (ETC)
Solar Air Heater
Cylindrical parabolic concentrating collector
Paraboloid concentrating collector
The mass of the sun is about 99.68% of the total mass of the solar system.
The earth receives about 1.7X1018 W of the sun's radiation.
The solar flux density reaching the earth is referred to as the 'solar constant' and has a value of approximately 1367 W/m2
Ozone, concentrated in a layer 10 to 30 km from the earth's surface, strongly absorbs UV radiation from the sun.
Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface has a wavelength between 0.29 and 2.5 μm.
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