Polymerase Chain Reaction - Lesson Summary
The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique is used to amplify a lot of double standard DNA molecules that have the same size and sequence using an enzymatic method and cycling condition.
The DNA is a nucleic acid that is composed of two complementary nucleotide building blockchains and these nucleotides are made up of a phosphate group, five-carbon sugars, and a nitrogen base.
The four nitrogen bases that are found in DNA are linked in a repeated pattern by a hydrogen bonding between the nitrogen bases and the linking of the two complementary strands is called hybridization.
DNA replication is a process of duplication of the entire genome prior to the division of cells and the extreme accuracy of DNA replication is necessary in order to preserve the integrity of the genome in successive generations.
The PCR is a repeated cycle reaction that involves a mechanism of DNA replication and this results in the production of multiple copies of DNA from a single one.
The thermal cycler is an instrument that carries out the amplification of the DNA using the polymerase chain reaction.
A primer is a short DNA stretch that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Primer secondary structures arise as a result of intra or intermolecular attraction within the primer which eventually reduces the yield of amplification as the availability of single-stranded primers will be limited for the PCR.
Primers should be designed in such a way that there should be no homology within the template other than the target site. This will result in non specific binding and amplification.
The PCR technology has become the basis for a broad spectrum of clinical diagnostic tests for various infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria.
The PCR Technology helps in detecting the presence of infectious diseases in the donated blood samples.
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