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Immunology Techniques - Lesson Summary

The system which protects the organism against invading pathogens is known as the immune system.
The antigen that is used for immunization should be as pure as possible, this helps reduce the generation of cross-reactive antibodies.
Hybridoma cells contain spleen cells capable of coding an antibody whereas myeloma cells do not produce antibodies but have the ability to grow indefinitely.
The nucleic acid synthesis is essential for the growth and multiplication of cells.
Agglutination refers to the process where antigens and antibodies link together and form visible aggregates.
The Sandwich ELISA setup is used to measure the level of antigens in the serum.
The Competitive ELISA Technique is based on the competitive binding of the primary antibody between the target antigen in a sample and the same antigen that is coated to the multi-well plate.
Cytokines and Chemokines are extracellular signaling molecules that mediate cell to cell communication.
Pixel densities on the developed X-ray film can be collected and analyzed using a transmission-mode scanner and image analysis software.
The Direct Agglutination test diagnoses antibodies against a large number of cellular antigens such as RBCs, bacteria and fungi.
Hemagglutination is the phenomenon which refers to the clumping of red blood cells.
The reaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies to form large interlocking aggregates is known as a precipitation reaction.
Radial Immunodiffusion is a quantitative immunodiffusion technique used to detect the concentration of antigen by measuring the diameter of the precipitin ring formed by the interaction of the antigen and the antibody at optimal concentration.
The principle of immuno-electrophoresis is based on the movement of antigens and antibodies to opposite poles after applying an electrical current.
ELISA is an immunological technique that is used to measure the level of antibodies or antigens in the body fluid.
The Indirect ELISA Technique is used to measure the level of antibodies in the serum and to calculate the titre of the antibodies.
The Western Blotting Technique is used to detect the specific protein present in the crude lysate or homogenate.