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Video 1: Nanotechnology in Plants:
Welcome back to the course on nanomaterials in agriculture, so as of now we have talkedabout in detail about one of the nanomaterials iron pyrite and then we have enumerated thedifferent kind of nanoparticles including silver, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium,zinc, carbon nanotubes, iron oxide, iron sulphide hence one and so forth.So, it is fairly clear that in years to come decades to come nanomaterial-based agriculturesystems or nanomaterials supported agriculture systems are emerging.And especially it will play a very critical role when we will be talking about the precisionforming or precision agriculture.So, keeping this in light before we move on to the role of nanomaterials in animal worldI wish to discuss some of the highlighting future of the nanomaterials in the plant worldwhich will help as to appreciate how the nanomaterial-based agriculture farming is going to shape up ofour future.So, let us look at some of the parameters are less unless some of the parameters ofthe benefits what we are obtaining from the nanomaterials.When there are applied to plants, so let us enumerate them we have nanomaterials in theform of particles, shades, colloidal suspensions.And here we have discussing the plant, so I will have discussed they there are differentstages where they are being used either they are used as seed treatment orseed coating is one aspect.The second aspect is mixing in soil adjacent to the plant root or thereis foliar spray.So, these are the 3 modes by virtue of which nanomaterials could come in contact with theplant or when we talk about, so as long as we have talking about these are the geoponicmode where we are going the plants in the soil and if we follow the hydroponic modeswhen we are growing the plants in water or salt solutions.Then we are mixing the nanomaterial in the hydroponic itself.So, nanomaterials become part of the salt solution which promotes the plant growth.Now what are the benefits what we have absorb let us enumerate those are of now what wehave absorb we have realized that it will leads to one better.And I am not categorizing from which treatment it is coming whether it is coming from seedtreatment, seed coating or by mixing into the soil or by foliar spray which over.But over all what we are observing is the better root growth, better shoot growth, largerleaves than higher rate of photosynthesis.And higher concentration of certain minerals not all but certain minerals now if you lookat these parameters oh yes apart from it what we are absorbing larger leaves than higherproduction or yield in terms of roots, seeds as we have absorbed as well as in terms offlowers.And apart from it what we have absorbed is hired dry biomass so, in another word morecarbon assimilation.So, this is the overall summary if I have to put it across on both like the nanomaterialsin the plant world, in one frame we have to look at this picture.So, this is something like this what has happened, in a single frame if I have to summarize,so this is the summary sheet which will tell.These are the effects or these are the benefits what we are obtaining by the nanomaterials.And in some of these cases what we have absorbed is nanomaterials are helping at very low concentrationare helpingin reducing NPK requirements.So, this is extremely important for us to understand that reduction in the NPK levelwill eventually help us to mitigate the problem of extreme amount of leaching which happensin the soil into the water bodies of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium all other differentelements or component of fertilizer which we are putting in excess into the soil.Now if we look at rationally try to figure out what is happening.If we see that this leads to a better say root growth something like this, say for examplethis is the representative root I am drawing.So, what we are absorbing is the higher root here whenever we talk about better or improvedlike the right word will be improved root growth.So, we are essentially talking about more root hair, more soil penetration, more rootspreads.Now all these 3 things will lead or will help these plants to acquire more nutrient.Because we have a more spread, so this will lead to more nutrient and water intake capability,so this that means these kinds of treatment could be an answer for growing crops in nutrientdeficient soils.When we talk about nutrient deficient soil we are talking about large part of Africancontinent, Latin American continent, Asian continent, South east Asia huge huge areaof land marks which are nutritionally so called again.This is a very relative parameters when you talk about so called they cannot match therequirements of many of the green vegetables and pulses, crops which has been set currentlyby food and agriculture organizations and other organization or fertilizer organizations.So here is an opportunity where nano particle treatment, if it is done in a benign manner.If it is benign like iron sulphur something like you know, little bit of silver.little bit of copper as long as we are not hitting any kind of a toxicity zone.Carbon is a matter of fact which we have been eating since time memorial if you look atcarbon like you know we eat the roasted meat, Barbequed meat, barbequed fish.These are all nothing but carbon and known in other these are all carbonaceous materials.So much of these carbons are already part of our food chain.So, and they are people who always argue about t what is the toxicity of this carbon kindof material.But hey if you look at we roast vegetables if we really take out that blackening partand if you analyze it you see they are nothing but different forms of carbon in the formof ant thin sheets graphene like sheets, some kind of a tubes like and so for, we have beenusing kajal you know many of you use that black stuff under in the eyes for an improvedeyes the better eyes, there is nothing but a carbon.So, as a metaphase carbon is part of our lifestyle I think for centuries for million year, sowhy we make so much high power it oh this will cost (()) (13:38) and all of these kindsof stuff probably not of course as long as we are maintaining a threshold how much touse.

Video 2: Nanomaterials for Fertilizer Tuning
So, this is one aspect what I am wanted to highlight here growing crops in nutrient deficientsoil may be nano is that precision.You can really apply the required amount and this could be another answer for fertilizertuning.You can tune the fertilizer requirements for such soils, similarly you can use fertilizerin precision farming where you really have to be very particular.So, there are different areas where the soul nanomaterial will come very handy.Now the same line if you talk about then we are talking about another aspect we are absorbingthat the leads of higher rate of photosynthesis.This is extremely important another aspect if you look at it think of it rationally.When we talk about photosynthesis what we are talking about is, so you are major sourceof energy on this planet which is sun.And here you have a plant which has been treated with some kind of a nanomaterial whether atthe stage of seed or root or foliar spray whateverNow higher rate of photosynthesis meansrate of photosynthesis.This essentially means we are increasing the area of trapping the light.So, in other word it means these plants will have higher level of chlorophyll which hasalready been documented high level of chlorophyll.This higher level of chlorophyll means you will have a high level of photosynthesis,so then in a finite area of a plant growth you are increasing the energy harvesting potentialof the plant which is converting energy harvesting potential of the plant where you are essentiallyconverting carbon into carbohydrate.So, a plant which is getting from its root system more minerals and waterby virtue of its improved root architectureand vary plant having a better solar energy harvesting potential will eventually willlead to a better and improved yield in terms of fruiting, flowering, foliage.So, if you remember when I told you what are the snapshots I wanted to discuss with youlet come back to the snapshot again.So here we are having a nanomaterial whether it is in the seed treatment level, seed coatinglevel mixing the soil in a trace amount or it is a foliar spray or even if it is in hydroponics.We are seeing better root growth, so that these help for nutrientdeficient soils, shoot growths larger leaves.So that means higher solar harvesting capability a better solar cell and actual solar cellthat means also.And of course, higher rate of photosynthesis here the next one which means higher chlorophylland then mineral content.Because this is the better route and better assimilation powerand what we are essentially seeing after that is that if were fruit production, seed production,higher biomass and better flowering.So, this is what I wanted to highlight that nano is possibly the answer for those placeswhere fertilizer affordability is the question.Fertilizer affordability is in question nano could come as one of themost portent tool to counter the problem of and mostly this fertilizer availability isdirectly linked to nutrient efficient soils of Asia, Africa, Latin America name of few.So, in other words these are small results there is some pieces because a whole fieldis growing, next to be watched out very carefully with open mind, with a positive frame of mindwithout getting broke down by you know.There will be always opposition is telling none this is toxic and that is toxic and alsothings will happen.But with open soul, with open mind if you look at it you review yours, we realize thatwe have to increase a production because there is no other way.And we have to be judicious, we have to be sustainable, we have to precise.These results slowly needed to be translated into the field to the slower down processbut with the positive frame we as a race can make a difference of going to the next revolutionwhich is we are assuring into history of the written like that.That we as a race emerge into the word of nano which judiciously if you look at it andcrack fully if you play the game we can meet the challenge faced by mankind that timidmillions with their hungry source.I think that is where much of our answer lays using nanomaterials in a very judicious manner,thank you.