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Video 1: Seed Pre-Treatment
Welcome back to the course in nanomaterials in agriculture, so as of now I have talkedyou about the different kind of nanomaterials, the morphology, the structure followed bythe synthesis techniques and then the characterization.And earlier to that we have talked about the overall situation why there is a need or thereis an extreme interest about using nanomaterials in agricultural products.So now we were shift gear and we will move to the practical application of nanomaterialsin agriculture.So, if you recollect the one of the slides which I talked pretty early when I startedthe course is using nanomaterials in agriculture and there we talked about where all nanomaterialscould be used where it could be used into the soil directly or it could be used in theplant body.And at different stages of the plant growth or it could be used into animal feed or injectingthe animals or for skin patches.Now when we talk about putting a nanomaterial into the soil we are essentially talking aboutthe resources like water, soil will be under the influence of nanomaterial.So that is something which we have to realize or appreciate or understand that exactly whathappen in fertilizer should not get repeated.So, to ensure that the nanomaterials what we are using or benign to consumption if atall the residues remain or gets degraded over period of time.So, whenever we talk about the soil we are directly talking about the water bodies andthat is where some of the purification things nanomaterial to purify water that is whatwill be discussing under this topic where there is a lot of research going onwater purification using nanomaterial.Now talking about direct applications into agriculture either it could be used to differentparts of the plant body.Either for the root treatment or shoot treatment or foliar spray or floral spray as well assomething which I have mention earlier is seed treatment.So, starting from the seed which is like the dormant part of the growth to the root treatmentor root priming depending on what kind of routes we are talking about all the way totreating the shoot as well as the foliar spray all the way to the flowers.Now in the case of animal especially it is use for animal productivity in terms of eithermilk production or meat production it could be used as a feed additive.We talk one such example where there is a hope with 1 of the nanoparticles or they couldbe injecting for immunity or they could be used as a skin patches for slow release.The overall goal of these kind of application is enhancingproductivity both plant and the animal world.Apart from it there is tremendous thrust of applying nanomaterial for post-harvest technologywhich includes food preservation mostly this includes grain and fresh produced preservationwhich includes of course cut flower preservation and all the kind of other off shoot areasinto the field.So, to start off with I will start off with seed treatment agent as nanomaterials.So, nanomaterial to improve plant/crop productivity by seed pretreatment.So, to start thetopic seed pretreatment in other word farmers before showing the plant or before showingthe seeds, they do treat the seeds.They treat the seeds in different ways, they can either use different kind of fungicides,they can use different kind of a germinating agent which will promote faster germinationor they can be use some other kind of growth booster to ensure the seed germinates.So as a matter of fact, the success of any crop depends on the germination percentagehigher the germination the better the crop standing and on all like we have the all otherparameters may incurred than higher will be better crop standing better higher the yield.So, this critical part is extremely important than formers have been using to enhance germination,they treat the seeds with different kind of thing.The major treatment they do possibly is the water treatment or overnight treatment inwater apart from they use different kind of fungicides, germination boosteror any other kind of you know agent which will help it to strengthen its immune system,strengthening immune system.Now for the simplest of all the things water treatment what the water does.So, if you look at the seed it is something like any series like this.The seed coat and inside is the real growing material is preserved inside.Now the seed coat is mostly impermeable to water, it does not allow water or any otherthings to pass through so easily.So, when it gets an overnight treatment with water slowly the water molecules kind of entersinside period of time and activate the metabolic processes.So, the next morning so this is metabolic processes, so the next day the germinationvigor is more.So, this is an agual practice what farmers have been following through centuries sincepossibly dawn of civilization and it will continue till the dusk of civilization.These are very very common methods similarly farmers use some kind of a coating of stuff,so this red is ideal coding or some kind of germination booster or some kind of immunemolecule which ensures once the plant gets into the soil.So, once the plant is into the soil there is enormous competitionfrom microbes who are compete in for food from other seeds of the same family as wellas from the other families and from different insects and other pathogens.So, a life of seed soon after it gets into the soil is really treasures one, it reallytough because the life has to express itself and that is very challenging.As a matter of fact, in that competition to germinate the one which will win is the onewhich will make a mark, the one which will fail to germinate will lose this battle.So now keeping this in mind one of the easiest approaches of applying nanomaterial couldbe seed pretreatment agent.So, once you are applying in to the seed, so whatever you are trying to do has to bethe overnight stuff and ensuring that these seed pretreatment agent are doing somethingafter coming in contact in that millue.So, whenever we are treating, so there could be 2 kind of treatments you do either it couldbe a dry coating of nanomaterial on top of the seed dry coating of NM stand for nanomaterialsor there is some kind of an aqueous treatment.Aqueous treatment is basically nanomaterial+water that is how you are treating.

Video 2: Iron Pyrites
Now today I will be sharing one of the stories of this second treatment aqueous treatmentwhen nanomaterial+water and where it acts.So, our first journey will be with one of the metal sulfide nanomaterial and this ispossibly one of the very very first nanomaterial base seed treatment agent which I have shownprofound impact on at least 10 or 12 different crops by increasing the productivity to thelevel it has ability to compete with the fertilizer applications.So, the metal sulfides here the metal iron, sulfide is S, so compound what whose nanomaterialwe were dealing with will be FeS2 which is also called pyrite or crushed is rich veryrich in pyrite.There is huge amount of pyrite all over the crush especially if you go to the places likeclose to the coal mines or you visit places like where you really see a huge amount ofit is rio, tinto river valley in Spain or there is another place where there is a richsource of pyrite apart from the pyrite mines.There are lot of pyrite mines all over you will see huge amount of pyrites in deep insidethe earth into the hydrothermal vents.As a matter of fact, pyrite is also called as fool’s gold, the reason it is colloquiallycalled as fool’s gold because the bulk pyrite is golden in color.And that is why many a times people mistake it as a gold that is why it is called as fool’sgold.So, pyrite is a very interesting compound which has find applications in myriad or placeslike in terms of agriculture bulk iron pyrite is being used in sodic soils, reclaiming sodicsoils.Say for example a soil which is sodic or pretty high pH like say you know 13, 14 or somethingwe can bring down the pH by to 7 which is a physiological pH by applying FeS2 or pyrite.Because once FeS2 gets into the soil in the presence of moisture it generates sufficientnumber of protons which brings the pH.So, for reclaiming sodic soils pyrite has been used especially in Indian context ifyou talk about.And such reclaim sodic soil has shown pyrite application into the soilin sodic soil improves nitrogen availability to the crop.Especially this has been observed in the rice crop but a challenge of using pyrite is pyritebrings down the pH.So, a normal soil can become acidic or will become acidic or has destined to become acidicif you use bulk pyrite into the soil, so keep that in mind.And there are certain trials which are done in Kanpur back in 1970’s, so this is whatI am talking about is around 1978.So, almost 40 years back, these kinds of research happen in India but there was nothing callednano or anything.Apart from its pyrite is one of the very extensively study material in of photo volatile and semiconductor.For semiconductors application these were used as rectifiers as early as 1910 to 1930.This time when these pyrites where used as rectifiers and it has tremendous photo voltaicpotential if it could be exploited for the solar cell applications.So, pyrite is nothing new to us, pyrite is a fairly old molecule through the ages andas a matter of it is being claimed that if pyrite could be used as a solar cell material.It will be far more efficient than crystalline silicon-based system because it tends to absorbin far red region.So, this is one of the key reasons why there is tremendous amount of interest in nano ironpyrite starting from electronics to photo voltaic all the way to reclaiming sodic soil.It is found tremendous application but it comes with a small drawback, it suffers fromsomething called stoichiometric defects.So, we will continue with what is the meaning of stoichiometric defect and from here wewill go down all the way to the deep deep into the dark world called hydrothermal vents.Because from here started our journey of it is application a new application of brand-newapplication of nano pyrite which was never discovered earlier the first time it is discoveredin India was as a seed treatment agent, thank you.