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Module 1: Nanotechnology and Shelf Life of Food Product

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Video 1: Physiology of the Muscle
Welcome back to the lecture series in roles of nanomaterials in agriculture.So we are into the animal production section, so in the last class if you recollect we talkedabout the role of cerium oxide nanoparticle in changing the muscle mass.In as a matter of fact there were 3, 4 things what we gathered from it was that there isan increase in muscle mass, there is increase in glycogen concentration, there is a increase in ATP concentration.So, in other words these muscles are energetically more robust and there is a increase in thetype 1 fiber ratio as well as there is a increase in the proteins or membrane proteins involvein electron transport chain across the mitochondria, while going through this I did not mentionabout how really the muscle develop, in what context really these things changes.So what we will do today is we will talk little bit about the muscle I will kind of give youan idea that how really the whole biology works and how these nanomaterials makes adifference.So, if you look at any of the muscles very carefully, so if you have to, so since allthese are dealt mostly with the muscle.So, there are 3 ways you can classify the muscle and we have only talked about 1 muscleat least 2 different kind of muscles we are talking about.So we talked about skeletal muscle yesterday in the previous class skeletal muscle withtheir the muscle which are lining our gut or making or gut or the elementary canal andeverything those were smooth muscle and then you have cardiac muscle.So, we have talked about the repair of cardiac muscle and a positive effect of cerium oxidenanoparticle CeO2 nanoparticle.And we have talked about a positive role of CeO2 nanoparticle along with exercise in improvingthe skeletal muscle performance.So essentially what happens is when the muscles are formed, so I will take you back bit ofthe developmental biology when the muscles are formed in the mother’s womb.The way it starts is there are the single cells which are destine to become muscle anykind be kind of muscle.Because all the 3 muscle development is similar, these are those single cells and these singlecells are called myocytes, myo means muscles, cytes means cells.Cells which are destine to become muscle cells, so these cells over a period of time theyform, they start to divide like this.So, each one of these muscles starts to divide, so finite number of division they go throughat a time something like this, followed by this division process it is a myocytes goingthrough division, followed by this division process they started to move and align, alignlike tubes, so they align like this.This is very essential for you people to understand because all the reference papers I will begiving unless you understand this process you would not able to appreciate how thosemuscles are formed.That the reason why we are taking as a special fragment of our course where we are talkingabout the muscle development something like this.These are long arrangement long linear kind of arrangements which happens.So, these cells are now migrating and aligning, migration or migrating followed by alignmentas you could see here they are aligned and this is basically telling that the migrationhappening.Once they are aligning there is an interesting process which happen, these cells startedto lose their individual boundaries and what they form is something like this and all thenucleus.So, these are the nucleus which are present, all the nucleus, so this is how the structurealmost becomes like a tube, all the nucleus are arrange like this.A very typical often skeletal muscle I am talking about.So, these tubes are called myo-tubes which is the smallest unit of muscle.Now these myo-tubes, then several myo-tubes like this align with one another and formwhat we called as myo-fibers.So, second develop alignment and formation of supramolecular assemblies, and these supramolecularassemblies are called myo-fibers.As you see the word myo remains common, now from cyte out here it forms tubes, out hereand then it forms fibers.

Video 2: Modulation of Force Generation
So, when I told you in the previous class there is a change in the fiber ratio I essentiallymean this fiber ratio.Now there is something which I have not mention as of now that is what I am going to come.So, this is your skeletal muscle development, now there is something else which is happening.Now each one of these, so we know that these skeletal muscle generates force, if you recollectwhen we talk about exercise as a double digit or we talked about the ROS reactive oxygenspecies which is generated during exercises essential for force generation right.So, now coming back to this part, so who is generating the force, how the force generationis happening, force generation how it is happening and who are they can be players in force generation.Now when we look at these myo-cytes, now if I take a single myo-cyte here enlarged one.So, this myo-cyte here is a nucleus it has lot of these crisscross proteins in it, comingto those what are those in it is cytoplasm and along the periphery.And these proteins are termed as actin and myosin, these proteins are the smallest unit,these are the ones which are the key players in generation of force, how is it so.Now this actin-myosin filaments are randomly arranged inside the cytoplasm.Now what happens when these cells come divide again they are randomly arranged, then whenthey are migrating it is perfectly fine.Then once they align still they are randomly arrange but then slowly there is a molecularsupra assembly happens where these actin-myosin filaments almost arrange like this, somethinglike this, almost they align like tubes.So, you have these cells something like this.Now once the myo-tube is formed they follow this arrangement like this something likethis and there are discontinuities which you could see as something like this.So, if you see a muscle fiber you will observe something like you know we will come to thatwhat are those discontinuities are it looks this continuities.Actually those are not discontinuities, those are something like this structures like thiswhich are also called Z lines.Now what you observe, it is kind of I will go little bit slowly for you to realize theseactin-myosin initially where randomly arranged.These were randomly arranged then while it is forming a supra molecular assembly outhere now actin+myosin filaments forms a aligned tube like structure, this alignment and formationof a tube like structure is one of the finest program arrangement of proteins which happen.And it is very very unique to look at and then once these individual cells looses theirboundary and form something like syncytium, it is a continuous structure something likethis.This arrangement continuous and not only they form further rearrangement.And it has been observe during development while we are developing in mother’s womband you know about to come out.These myosin filaments changes their type, so some of these myosins which are found whilewe human or any of the species which grows in their respective mother’s womb have adifferent kind of myosin protein during their fetal stage.So, they have a fetal myosin and myosins are heavy chain, so these are called fetal myosinheavy chains and as the mature as it taking birth they become much more mature and thereis a change in their protein confirmation.They become more like mature more like adult like myosin heavy chain and they are alsosometime in biological literature you will come across this word called MHC myosin heavychain like 1, type 2 likewise there is white array of subtypes of myosins which you couldsee in the literature.So, during this development as these tubes are forming aligning their myosin heavy chaintype changes.And it is one of the most beautiful example of development and there are cassettes ofgene families which are involved in regulating this process, what is important for you torealize.This rearrangement of a structure this is where I am coming.If you again if I take you back whenever we talk about change in the fiber ratio becauseof the application of cerium oxide nanoparticle.Then we are talking about hitting upon the ratio of or type of myosin filaments, it isbad deep while the impact is being observed.That is why I am taking this extra step backward to teach you that you have to appreciate thatthis is not something ordinary, this is something out of the world to really look at wow.This is effecting all the way up to without doing any kind of genetic manipulation, thisis the simple you are giving either inthe diet or through blood or intervene or subcutaneous into the muscle.If you give these kind of nanoparticles which essentially a simple redox couple which isthere like you know +3 to +4 sorry +4, +3 or +3 to +4 autocatalytic redox couple isbringing about changes which whenever when taught of it is something mesmerizing whenyou see the pattern why is because this will be able to appreciate better once I will provideyou the relevant literature where you will see that changes are drastic really drastic.I mean that something never ever people thought that without doing any kind of genetic manipulationor anything they will see.These kind of changes like think of the change in these kind of you know mostly these areiron, sulfur, proteins across the mitochondrial membrane these ones.It is something phenomenal.So, now coming backward I was so it is out here the fetal myosin have been changed transformedinto adult myosin heavy chain in these kind of muscle.Now how this arrangement really looks like that will be our next class what will be talkingabout is now we have already talked about who are the players.Now in the next class what we will do is we will talk aboutthe arrangement of actin-myosin filament which are involved in force generation and roleof mitochondria in this whole process.And this force generation will be govern by 2 basic biological processes sliding filamenttheory and excitation, contraction, coupling apparatus.And role of mitochondria energy source, electron transport andin this whole process how our target cerium oxide redox couple plays a critical role.And next what we will do nano and micro structures to study force generation by muscles and inthis fragment we will talk about nano and micro cantilevers and AFM atomic force microscopictest, how these could come so very handy to study the force generation.So, I am closing here we will resume our journey on this part in thenext 2, 3 classes thank you.