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Module 1: Nanotechnology in Animal Production

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Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials
It is a nanoparticle form of Ceria that is used as an Antioxidant. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) exhibit antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. This is due to the self-regeneration of their surface, which is based on redox-cycling between 3+ and 4+ states for cerium, in response to their immediate environment.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles have gained a lot of attention as a potential future candidate for ending various kinds of problems by exhibiting redox activity, free radical scavenging property and biofilm inhibition.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit or quench free radical reactions and delay or inhibit cellular damage.

Antioxidant Molecules in Food Additives
Antioxidants are additives capable of delaying or preventing rancidity of food due to oxidation, and therefore, lengthen the shelf life of products. They are very important in the food industry because they allow foods to conserve their nutritional properties and their quality levels.
Some of the most commonly used natural antioxidants are tocopherols, rosemary extract or ascorbic acid, which are increasingly being sought after by companies in the food industry because of their many benefits. Over the centuries, nature has developed different compounds to prevent the oxidation of lipids.

Reactive Oxygen Species
Reactive Oxygen Species are highly reactive chemical molecules formed due to the electron acceptability of O₂. Examples of ROS include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and alpha-oxygen.

Antioxidant Nanomaterial in Skeletal Muscle Development
Exercise' is a double-edged sword for the skeletal muscle. Small amount of ROS generated during mild exercise is essential for normal force generation; whereas large quantity of ROS generated during intense exercise, may cause contractile dysfunction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue.
Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles neutralizes reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Intramuscular injections of Cerium Oxide Nanozyme, concurrent with exercise, enhanced muscle mass, glycogen and ATP content, type I fiber ratio, thus resulting in significantly higher muscle endurance.