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Module 1: Nanotechnology in Animal Production

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Welcome back to the lecture series in role of nanomaterials in agriculture, so we areinto the animal production section.So, the question where I ended my previous lecture was could antioxidant therapy improveendurance of skeletal muscle.Because I mentioned you that during exercise it generates reactive oxygen species.And those ROS are essential for generation of contractile forces but during intense exercisethere is a large quantity of reactive oxygen species which is generated, unless otherwiseyour system is well equipped with fully functional, so peroxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidaseor catalyze you if they are not well equipped with it.Then you may suffer from contractile dysfunction, muscle weakness and fatigue.So according to the current understanding our skeletal muscle physiology ROS or freeradical at low and physiological level is essential for normal force production whereasat higher level of ROS causes contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness andfatigue.Such ROS mediated skeletal muscle tissue damage often occurs during intense physical exerciseand is termed as is the term used for it exercise induce oxidative stress.Thus, the level of ROS forms the pivot which regulates the exercise redox biology of theskeletal muscle exercise.Now one of the options is supplementing diet with antioxidants like Vitamin E. And theseattempts have been attempted to reduce the ROS load or reactive oxygen species load inthe skeletal muscle.Thus, reducing the ROS meditated oxidative damage, single large-scale intervention experimentusing high doses of anti-oxidant offered disappointing result.So, what has been observe that this study where such animals have been supplementedwith heavy doses of anti-oxidants are which are mostly if you look at Vitamin E, the structureof Vitamin E. These are huge molecules, the results were disappointing, now that verycritical and that needs a very same thinking.Now again take you back to one of the previous classes when I talk to you naturally occurringanti-oxidant molecule if you remember it remember.So, this naturally occurring anti-oxidant molecule these are huge molecules somethinglike this.And I told you these are used in food additive in an industry, but these huge molecules whenyou are putting into the system.In order to counter the ROS, they may have their own side effects to because body isnot used to consume these molecules in huge amount like if you take a lot of Vitamins.It is normally help you really, I mean you may not even need Vitamin because body mayfunction with a very trace amount of it, we need vitamin the what I am mean to say youmay not need vitamin supplementation really at times.We always get oh take as much as possible that is a very wrong concept, that does notwork because body has its own weight in a conserve them.Now if you are supplementing the diet with lot of they say for example in this case.The whole trial failed of vitamin E as an anti-oxidant it completely failed it did notwork because their issues with such kind of trials.So, what was I was trying to highlight is that just because we believe this going towork will work it does not happen like that and that was the reason why I highlightedthis part when there are these kind of huge molecules like this, they may come with theirwhole series of side effects and may not work.So, we need an optimal quantity, so this is the area where nano may come pretty handywhere the quantity is extremely low some delta quantity we are talking and the effect isvery profound and when you talk about something like cerium which is needed in extremely smallquantity going by the reaction which is having a pseudo infinite half life.Then the story line completely changes, so getting back what are the things which wereobserve was the single large-scale intervention experiments using high doses of anti-oxidantof a disappointing result that does anti-oxidant nutrition studies as a therapeutic approachremained in conclusive till this date.It is one of the most inconclusive study that whether anti-oxidant therapy is good for animalproduction or not or at least increasing their skeletal muscle endurance and all other stuffis it possible.And it is very inconclusive, but then at that time there was one study which was conductedusing cerium oxide nanoparticle instead of vitamin E.This failed could you use Ceo2, Ce2o3 sorry could you use this redox couple in a skeletalmuscle and the whole idea was the key question is how cerium oxide exhibits such myriad effectand we have already talked about it, so now here this one study showed a very interestingresult it has been introduced into the rat by intro-muscular injection.So, basically this whole trial was done on rats something like this.It has been introduced into the rat by intra-muscular injection and the skeletal muscle endurancehas been evaluated, intra-muscular injection of cerium oxide concurrent with exercise.You have to do the exercise you have to make the rat go through the exercise it enhancesthere is 2, 3 things which enhances.It enhances the muscle mass was a huge enhancing muscle mass, there was an increase in glycogen,there was an increase in ATP content once again.And type-I fiber ratio was increasing, so these are the different fiber ratio of theskeletal muscle, thus resulting a significantly higher muscle endurance, there is a highermuscle endurance.So, electron microscopic studies confirm the presence of cerium oxide nanoparticle in thevicinity of muscle mitochondria, the power house of the cell.So, there were presence of the cerium oxide and what is the significance will come aboutit very soon.Thus, there was an increase in the number and the size of the muscle mitochondria inthe cerium oxide nanoparticle treated muscle following exercise as compared to the untreatedgrowth with only exercise muscle.And apart from it the quantitative protonix data and subsequent biological network analysisstudies identified higher level of oxidative phosphorylation, the major energy generationreaction of the body of the biological system TCS cycle output, tri-carboxylic acid cycleoutput.And glycolysis breaking down of the glycogen lysis glycolysis and this was further associativethis significant increase in the mitochondrial respiratory capacity and muscle contractionprimarily due to the higher level of electron transport chain proteins like, so all theelectron transport chains which are proteins which are involved are NDUF A9, SDHA, ATP5B,ATP5D and was all these were evaluated by ICPMS data.And which reveal clearance of the particles after 90 days without exhibiting any inflammatoryor adverse effect on the health of the experimental animal.Thus, a higher physiological endurance of cerium oxide nanoparticles supplemented exercisemuscle opens a new avenue for skeletal muscle therapeutics space and sports medicine.So, what if you look at the data very carefully.It results in increasing muscle mass, in other word what you are countering is that infinitepseudo infinite half-life is countering the ROS damage like countering the ROS damageyour ensuring there is an increase in the muscle mass, further if there is an increasein muscle mass there will be more glycogen, those rich carbohydrates which are presentthere which are ensuring that it could generate lot more energy.Now if you look at the mitochondrial chain, electron transport chain there is an increasein electron transport protein concentration.In other word the efficiency of the mitochondria which is the power house of the cell, so theefficiency of the mitochondria is increase.Because there is more oxidative phosphorylation, there is more glycolysis, there is more TCAcycle output.So instead of using heavy doses of where the study field if you look at it.In case of Vitamin E instead of using heavy doses of Vitamin E if you use a trace verytrace amount of CeO2.You may get totally dramatic results in a skeletal muscle, this is very interestingfinding in terms of increasing animal production, this study could be translated in poultrywhere your meat production is extremely important.One area where for meat similar if for beef, similar is the situation for sports animal,similar is in space medicine.Because if you look at the space there is huge amount of muscle loss especially theskeletal mostly the skeletal muscle loss, if you see the data from NASA and other spaceagency and the world ISRO, NASA and all other agencies they will tell you the Russian agenciesFrench agencies, Chinese agencies.If you look at them you would see most they come back because of the no gravity, thereis huge amount of skeletal muscle of how we can counter it.You need something in a very trace amount and we do want and this particular 5 atomor 3 atoms in organic molecule is doing wonders.I mean the data is in front of you but the trace amount, where the biggest trial failedis an increase in muscle mass which is very critical for the meat industry nutritionallythis is higher glycogen concentration.So, the ATP content is increasing, so it means it has more energetically, more robust, thisis a type-I fiber ratio which has gone up.This is very critical apart from it you are breaking down more of the glycogen like glycolysisand of course this part in future people will study how we can increase the percentage orconcentration of electron transport chain proteins.So, in other word your electron transport efficiency in the mitochondria is increased.So, these kind of a studies are laying the foundationstone of application of nanomaterials in animal production and could open up all togethernew avenue to explore nanomaterial in a very trace amounts of course one has to be an someof these studies are clearly seen within 50 days it is getting cleared up from the bodyor not, so because you are using a very trace amount and even if it kind of these traceamount remains in the bone.It is not going to effective because in the bones along with calcium they may form complexesand they would remain there without you know really hardening your system.So, some of these studies in decades to come will lay a firm footing into the animal productionworld and small story which started back in UCF university of center Florida Orlando somewhereon 2003, 2004 is now almost there where it is a technology as small discovery in if youlook at it all its application.Neuro-protective or its spinal cord repair cardio-protective for the heart, radio protectivefor cancer therapy, photo receptor for retinal damage, H2O2 sensor for application.And now adding up to that skeletal muscle endurance studies and may be sports medicineand a space medicine, apart from it found application in countering hypobaric as low-pressurehypoxia low oxygen survival.So, in other word animal production in places like (()) (19:54) have lower oxygen tensionthese kinds of administrating this kind of molecules could make tremendous differencein the animal production.So, I am closing here and I will provide you all the reading materials, the papers whichhave introduce in this area, there will kind of help you to appreciate the feel how ithas emerged out from a small space.And today it is one of the very important nanomaterial which is finding wide range ofapplication from human to the animal world, thank you.