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Module 1: Nanoparticles in Agricultural Products

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Welcome back to the lecture series in nanotechnology in agriculture, so today we will be startinganother aspect of application of nanotechnology that is an annual production.So, whenever we talk about agriculture there are 2 broad areas which comes a front oneis the plant side, the other one is the animal side.And if in the animal side if you look at it, so start off with what will be dealing todaywill be basically nanotechnology in animal production.So, when we talk about animal production we are essentially dealing with multiple sectionsof animal and for their multiple utility.So, one of the major industries what we talk about will be the dairying, so all the milkproducers, then we will be talking about the meat producing animal.Then we will be talking about fisheries and occasionally we can also talk about some ofthe insect related stuff especially when you talk about something like silkworm.So, this is one way you can classify them or you can classify them based on the animal.But I purposefully focused in this particular classification that way you can see the utilityand value of it.So, when you talk about the dairy we are talking about a series of cattle which and goat inIndian context will be cow, buffalo and in a slightly lesser sight.You can have yolk, you can have camel, you can have goat, sheep and likewise series ofthem.But the major chunk without here terms of the meat you have poultry, you have beef,you have goat meat.And few others but these are the one which are prominent, in terms of the fisheries youhave 2 classes of fisheries one is for the food purpose, the other is for the ornamentalfishes which is also very big market.And in terms of insect silkworm Lac and few other insects which has commercial significance.Now when you talk about animal production what are the areas what is being dealt, nowwhen nanotechnology make come handy.So, let us make a rough classification of the areas when nanotechnology may be veryhelpful.So, one of the areas where nanotechnology will very helpful will be food and food additivesespecially as we will be discussing further with this informal discussion.When you talk about the food additives, so if you look at human nutrition just for thatwhat we are much more familiar with we talk about source of carbohydrate, source of protein,source of lipids, or facts.Then you have vitamins, minerals now in animal nutrition it is pretty much the same, youneed carbohydrate, you need protein, you need fat, you need lipids, you need minerals.Now one of the challenging parts is delivery of minerals, nutraceuticals.It is a big area and it is a huge market are there wide open and not only that this hassignificance in animal world, it has significant in human world too where you have to delivera small amount portend amount and without causing any side effect, that is why it comespretty handy.So, food and food additives, so that falls under the family of your nutraceuticals, thatis one of the big areas.So, essentially in a nutraceutical when we talk about we are talking about feeds supplementat the nano scale.So, feed supplement like minerals and vitamins feed supplements at the nano scale are morebioavailable or in other word they are absorbed much more easily.And we will talk about later how these are being absorbed to animals as compared to themicro scale and occur in the gut and better absorbance.So, this is one aspect, now these food and food additives are nutraceuticals could besources of minerals and metals mostly which is falls another, mineral category metalsor this could be natural.There are several natural food additives which are available, this aspect of nutraceuticalsis exceptionally important from the animal production point of view, say for examplethere are several poultry animal who produces x which are very pretty fragile like you know.The shell is kind of weak it cracks it cracks because there is a possibility that the poultrywhich is producing it is not getting proper calcium support.Similarly, in other quality of the yolk kind of goes down, so all these things fall underthat trace nutraceuticals supply.So, from most of the farmers this area of nutraceuticals, animal farmers are exceptionalimportant and again one of the challenging part of nutraceuticals is the absorbance inthe gut.How fast it can absorb because when we talk about nanoparticle you are realizing nanomaterial,so there are 3 modes by which you can really delivered.You can just I am addressing from the aspects, so the mode of delivery if you look at itvery carefully, mode of delivery of nanomaterial.So, one it could be direct or second it could act as a career to deliver something or itcould be interacting in something some kind of like a capsule.So, it is something like you know a capsule you have and you have the nutraceuticals intrapped in it all you have they act as a career like this for the delivery of it or directlythey enter.Now nutraceuticals could be delivered in all these 3 formats depending on how the gut isabsorbing the nutraceuticals.So, this is one of the very critical aspects and we will talk little bit more once youenumerate where all in animal production nanoparticle may come pretty handy.So, the next area of interest is where lot of investment is happening is the drug andnutrient delivery.When you talk about drug and nutrient delivery it can be loaded with traditional antibioticsand may act as a shuttle to release them.When enclose proximity to a pathogen, so basically when you talk about drugs we are talking aboutantibiotic delivery at targeted site.So, site directed delivery of short term I am writing antibiotic is Ab antibiotic.Similarly, metal nanoparticle may be conjugated to a polymer for a combined nutrient biocidedelivery approach.So exactly something like that metal nanoparticles will be these are the metal nano particlethere we conjugated with polymers and suppose this one is the polymer and these are thenanoparticle here.So, conjugating the metal nanoparticles, these are the NP nanoparticle and this could bea very portend way for nutrient delivery as well as nutraceuticals delivery.Similarly, they are application as biocides, what are biocides, so basically, they areeither the metals of the polymer lie negatively charge gram positive or gram-negative bacterialcell wall oaky.It could be used as biocides like you know pesticide or something which is antimicrobial,so this could be either metals or polymers and they could lies negatively chargegram positive bacteria or gram-negative bacteria.Similarly, this polymer could destabilize bacterial cell walls such as such that thehomeostress is distracted and to the lethal extent.In the same line there is another area which is extremely important animal production isthe diagnostic tool.So, the diagnostic tools could be again could be of 2 kinds they could be the magnetic nanoparticlesas diagnostic tools magnetic metal nanoparticle for the MRI magnetic metal nanoparticle forMRI application magnetic resonance imaging application or FMRI.Similarly, fluorescent probes are also available for diagnostics applications like 2 photonapplications and all.The next important area but there is tremendousness scope is reproductive aids, the reproductiveaids we are talking about the purification of sperm through removal of damaged spermmatters are why surface marker recognized by nanoparticle bound antibodies or electrons.So, this is especially for this sperm bank where good quality sperm from high producersare being conserved or preserved.But in order to do that you have to ensure that your sperm quality is being maintained,so in that process you have to remove the damaged sperms.So that it the material which is coming out from the lysed sperm, does not damage thesurrounding sperms for that.So, what could be done is purification of sperm through the removal of damage spermatozoa,through the removal of damaged spermatozoa via surfacemarkers recognize by nanoparticle boundantibodies Ab stands for antibodies or Lectins.Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins.Next important aspect is the molecular biology agents which is essentially the biotechnologyagent molecular biology agents in the veterinary medicine.So, which includes nano particle NP stand for nanoparticle, nanoparticle-based genedelivery, gene transfer similarly DNA transfection.So, if you look at it now if I have to summarize the areas where it all, so starting from drugto nutrient delivery to nutraceuticals, biocides, diagnostic tool reproductive aids and molecularbiology agent.So, if you look at this spectrum of application of nanotechnology in annual production thespectrum is pretty wide.There is multiple level where nanoparticle or nanomaterial find an application in annualproduction starting from production diagnostics to reproductive aids so and, and so for.Now they are several criteria by which one has to go through before these products orthese kinds of stuff could be commercialize like you know what is a toxicity level.How much we are injecting into the system.There are several rules or several regulations by different federal governments which takescare of it.So as well proceed through will be talking about some of these technologies where nanoparticledifferent kind of nanoparticles have found application in increasing the muscle masswill be talking about especially with respect to cerium oxide increasing the muscle mass,will talk about some of the nanomaterials which have been used of gene delivery.We talking about some of the nutraceuticals which have increased the milk production oregg production exactly the same as we talked in the agriculture the different nanomaterials.Here also we will follow a sequence where will kind of enumerate them and this listis going to go up.Because more and more we are understanding nano biotechnology and its applications biotechnologywill have line share from nanoscience in the years to come.I will be closing here, in the next class we will take a specific example of nanomaterialswhich are helping in or which are assisting in animal production thank you.