Loading

Alison's New App is now available on iOS and Android! Download Now

Module 1: Nanoparticles in Agricultural Products

Study Reminders
Support
Text Version

Set your study reminders

We will email you at these times to remind you to study.
  • Monday

    -

    7am

    +

    Tuesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Wednesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Thursday

    -

    7am

    +

    Friday

    -

    7am

    +

    Saturday

    -

    7am

    +

    Sunday

    -

    7am

    +

So, welcome back into the lecture series on nanotechnology in agriculture.So as of now we have talked about the seed treatment with iron pyrite, the reason tostress upon it is that there are very few studies as of now which has seen the wholeproduction in the field post seed treatment.As a matter of fact, seed treatment as such have been studied with nanomaterial mostlyin terms of germination, how it influences the germination.But to see the whole spectrum of growth in terms in germination to (()) (00:50) and analyzingthe final product hardly any studies there almost none, at least which are published.So that was one of the reasons why I invested so much time on telling about 1 material whichhas have a result of the complete spectrum in turns of the final production and the nutritionanalysis.Today what I will do, I will give you a kind of a summary sheet of the other nanomaterialwhich been investigated currently or under intense investigation primarily at the levelof either foliar spray or germination or seed link treatment and the growth but not thatI have given you all the productions and everything not in that level.So, one of the common nanoparticles which has been used pretty frequently is silvernanoparticle.And by the way even if you miss out here I will be giving you some of those publicationswhere these comprehensive tables have an included.So, you can really refer to those table and you can check the cross-references and youwill find there are quite a number of studies which is come from India.And there are really pretty neat studies and you will appreciate and there was one whichyou like which is on hydroponics.So, there are several lines of application which is emerging as nanotechnology is notchanged from an intensity to it is maturity.We are realizing many interesting aspects, so let us continue silver, silver nanoparticleshave been used on jasmine rice.On jasmine rice seed priming and it has been shown to enhance germination it was been germinationlike g enhance germination and it also promotes germination of Ag in seeds.And in other words, as we have mention earlier that you can really stop that aging processwithin the leaf by manipulating it is enzyme activity that precisely what silver does not,silver is an antibacterial and it has several other antimicrobial activities.So, this is about silver similarly we have already told about iron especially iron sulfurit has been tried on chickpea.Similarly zinc, zinc has been tried for seed priming which increases seed wheat and otheraspect similarly calcium multi volt carbon nanotube.So, zinc, calcium, multi volt carbon nanotube, so these have been treated as a seed primingwhich has been shown it increase the stress tolerance.This is another area where people are working and you will have all the references comingup in a publication.Similarly, we have talked about iron pyrite where in chickpea, spinach, beetroot, carrot,fenugreek, alfalfa, mustard, sesame, rice in a whole ring.Similarly, if we move onto Cerium oxide another very important nanoparticle in terms of itis done for it is biomedical application.It has been tried out in radish germination but it has a negative result and has shownit retards the germination but that has it is own advantage.Because this is a very similar result what we have observed with spinach it retards orit is slows down the germination, why it slows down the germination.There is an interesting question we try to answer because it chooses a member what promotethe germination, germination is promoted by removing the blockage offered by antioxidantenzyme towards that towards amylase not to function.So, amylase if you recollect the amylase is the enzymes which involved in breaking downof the starch which is one of the most important events which regulates the germination processright.Now these antioxidant enzymes catalyze superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, these antioxidantenzymes prevent the activity of amylase.But then what FeS2 does, FeS2 produces a trace amount of hydrogen peroxide that hydrogenperoxide grows and breaks down the starch and the releases the reducing sugars and theyare avoid a plan get ready source of energy pretty fast as compare to control once andit grows.Now what Cerium oxide does, why Cerium oxide retard germination, if you think of its Ceriumoxide in nature is an antioxidant molecule.It is a 3-atom antioxidant with swap in it is oxidation state from C3 to C4, C4 to C3is an auto catalytic antioxidant.And this is what Cerium is all about, so and Cerium we new readily in biomedical researchespecially in spinal cord injury in retinal degeneration of the photoreceptor could beretarded by using a supplementing the retina with Cerium oxide.Similarly, has been used in cancer patient where undergoing radiation therapy becauseit protects the healthy cells around the affected area of the tumor or the cancer growth.So, if you use an antioxidant what you are essentially doing you are adding into thelist of 3 antioxidant what I told you right catalyst, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase+Cerium.So, you are actually preventing the seed from germination.So, in other word that gives us a clue what it is say for example you are storing seedand it is a damp weather when you really have to ensure that you know they get that youcan use this as a seed storage material.So, any result forth comes it is up to you why not apply it, so it traces amount of itand it is going to work.Because at the nano resume we need to one need the whole amount of it.So, that is why this piece of information that is retard germination could also be usedfor seed storage.So, glutathione peroxidase, catalyst, superoxide dismutase+CeO2 this is the battery of (09:10)working.Now from cerium oxide move on to carbon nano tubes, carbon nanotube in tomato has beenshown to enhance seed germination.Similarly, water-soluble carbon nanotubes in chickpea has shown to increase the growth,similarly silver has been treated silver nanoparticle have been treated on fenugreek seed, it increasesthe fenugreek seedlings sorry it has increased the leaf numbers, shoot length, root lengthand wet weight.Similarly, molybdenum has been tried on chickpea seedlings, it has been increasing the rootand nodule number and as development of microorganisms in the (()) (19:53).Similarly, manganese has been trying in on mong beans seedlings other this is the statewhere I mention seed or seedling of any other flower spray or something else.This increase the root length, shoot length, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid containedand for synthesis rate.Citric acid coated Cerium oxide and the radish seedling retarded seed germination but thechange the see performance as I have already mention calcium carbonate despite on peanutseedlings it significantly improves seedling growth, magnesium tried on black eyed peaseedlings it increases seed rate similarly iron tried on black eyed pea in hydroponicfoliar and seedlings it increased weight and chlorophyll content.Zinc oxide tried on mong bean and chickpeas seedlings it increases shoot length and rootlength and biomass.Carbon nanotube tried on anion seedlings it increases the root growth, zinc oxide it istried on cucumber in the soil mixture as well on seedling it increases root dry mass andfruit starch, this is very interesting see think about zinc it increases the food starch.So, in other word you have ability to modulate nutrition of status of the fruit.So, now from there we move onto copper oxide Co it was tried on water weed seedlings itincreases it is percentage rate Cu2O.Similarly, Fe2O3 tried on spinach in hydroponics it increases plant biomass root and shoot.Similarly zinc fortified core manganese carbon at nano shell tried on rice in soil it increasesgreen yield it is pretty complex one though, you have zinc fortified because zinc is (()) (11:54)disease, zinc deficiency zinc fortified core and manganese carbonate nano shell.It is a pretty complex synthesis process which is directly applied to the soil it increasesthe grain yield, zinc oxide on chickpea through foliar spray on seedling increase biomassaccumulation.Similarly, iron tried on wheat foliar spray in as for synthesis chlorophyll and biomass,so this is exhausted really can you know on and on but the fact of matter what I wantedto highlight here is there are series of it so it we really numbered of the kind of nanoparticle we just now talked about.So, if we list then we talked about silver, we talked about iron, we talked about zinc,calcium, multi volt carbon nano tubes, carbon nano anions, FeS2 which is pyrite.Then we talked about cerium oxide, carbon nanotubes in CNTs and water-soluble carbonnanotubes.And again, a silver, molybdenum, manganese, citric acid coated Co2 which is acting asa carrier calcium carbonate, magnesium, iron, zinc oxide.Carbon nanotubes, copper oxide, cuprous oxide, iron oxide so and so forth.So, if you look at the whole list is fairly large.And if you look in terms of the crops where at different stages of it has been tried thatis also a very small list in terms of the grains if you look at it, you have both riceand wheat has been tried out legumes all over the place have been tried out different kindof legumes.I am just going that the family then in terms of a series of vegetables which have beentried out.Similarly, you have some of the water weeds and all these things have been tried out.So, to look from the nutritional perspective you have starch, minerals and of course (()) (14:55)and proteins.So, if you talk about where are we heading the future is in these kinds of nanomaterialswhich will be dictate, so there will be lot of studies which is going to come up in next20 years or so.And this is going to change the landscape of agriculture we are heading for a next revolutionwhere beyond will be started will start thinking the word beyond NPK’s traditional journey.This is where we are heading, we started as a race in the last century 1900 beginning1900 the rise of NPK and 100 years, 100 long years a little more than 100 years actuallyat 1725 years now about be in and another decade or so.A journey which saw green revolution emergence of low verities of rice and wheat, emergenceof different kind of polyploidies in vegetables and other crops in fruit crops.So tremendous development along with it, tremendous improvement in the productivity it is sawthe rice of population.But as a fall out we observe large amount of disbalance in terms of water resources,eco system got put up similarly the soil got fertile.But then the (()) (16:58) grows on we are heading for precision agriculture.And the nanotechnology will play a critical role in precision agriculture where smalleramount maximum output.So, people have apprehensions what will happen to the fate and all these things and therewill continue I am pretty sure when NPK came into the market there were apprehension whenyou cannot help it.We are the race will keep on exploring just away we explore hybrid seeds will keep onexploring genetically engineered crop which are so common now, that is how a human raceabout it will keep on trying new and newer things, it will learn to it is mistake andit will again do mistakes.So, if I see the literature I will say that is where the future lies, soit was not only it concentrated on crops.Already nano medicine is making enroll into our medical world, there are several nanomaterialswhich have been used from magnetic nanomaterial to antioxidant nanomaterial to drug carriersto anti inflammatory agents’ series of the anti cancer nanomaterial delivering drugsbeyond CSF cerebrospinal fluid into the brain.So, next what we are talk about will be how this nanomaterial are influencing animal productivity,the animal world, so agriculture has been have started.So, if you look at the whole spectrum of agriculture it will be plant world, animal world and withinthe plant you know all the categories like you know we have the grain, we have the legumeor the flowers, you have the trees and all.But before I start the animal world in how the nanotechnology is influencing the animalworld.We will talk little bit more in our next class about how nanotechnology can come very handyin nutrient deficient soils of the world which covers a huge chunk in Asia, Africa, LatinAmerica.And where fertilizers are exceptionally cost prohibitive, so I will be closing here, inthe next we will talk little bit about nutrient deficient soils and the application of nanomaterial.And then we will follow up with the animal productivity, thank you.