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Module 1: Nanoparticles in Agricultural Products

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Video 1: Application of Pyrite Nanoparticle in Vegetable Crops
Welcome back to the lecture series in rollup nanoparticles and nanomaterials in agriculture.So, in the last class we talked about the mechanism of action of iron pyrite nanoparticlein keys of spinach crop.In general, that is possibly the most accepted theory by virtue of its iron pyrite act.So just for a small recap where we finish the previous class, so look at it.So, this is where we showed that pyrite particles producing trace amount of hydrogen peroxideand iron in +3 and +2 state and So4 2- that is the aqueous chemistry of iron pyrite whichis essentially a Fenton like reagent it is acting like a Fenton like reagent, so useFenton like reagents.And this hydrogen peroxide is involved in breaking down of those huge starch moleculeswhich essentially is mimicking the amylase activity.And due to this breakdown of the starch molecule these plants or these treated plants get abetter start off as compare to the plants which are not getting that fast supply ofenergy.This is precisely what we believe is happening out there.So, in other word we can call FeS2 water system has an artificial starch breaking enzyme system.And apart from it, it is believed that it triggers another pathway which is yet to beexplode is called brassinosteroid pathway which is essentially a pathway which getsactivated when plants realize that it has to acquire more nutrients in a short periodof time maybe it is kind of related to some way to the stress pathway.It is not very clear but it seems that this is one of thing which is happening apart fromthe H2O2 signaling.And of course, fortifying the plant in environment iron and sulfur.Now if you look at the concentration of different elements which are increasing in these plants.If you look at its iron that remains constant, there is no different with treated and thecontrol.So, control versus treatment is same.Now if you look calcium it is definitely in the treatment seed treatment this is higher,if you look at manganese this is higher.So, manganese being higher makes does make sense because chlorophyll is higher, so itmeans your manganese clusters will be higher.If you look at zinc, zinc is higher similarly if you look at sulfur, sulfur is higher.So, these elements are higher in the case of the seeds which are treated with iron pyritenanoparticles.So, these plants have this added feature in them, now from here if you look at the differentkind of crops where it has shown.So, in the field trials which were done with beetroot showed a very profound impact, incase of beetroot we observed a much modified or does the modification in the root structure,root is much thicker.So, if you take a cross-section of beetroot then you will observe the beetroots whichare treated as a much thicker cross section as compare to the beetroot which are untreatedsomething like this.As you know the beetroots are like this as compare to the one which are untreated.So, much thicker cross section.So, it is found that there was a significantly higher beet production by nano FeS2 seed treatmentand the total yield of control and FeS2 pretreated is in the range of in the case of controlit is approximately 4.65 kilogram whereas in the case of FeS2 treated it is almost like6.85 kg, similarly if you look at the carrots this is the case of beetroot.And if you look at carrots then you observe a very interesting improvement in the caseof control it is 11.4 kgs whereas in the case test and this is all for unit area whateverwe are talking about trail.So, there is an increase in approximately 19% and the contrary in the case of beetrootyou observe increase of approximately 47% increase.So, similarly if we go to fenugreek which is a commonly use a spice in African Asianand North American continent.You will observe that the leaf area is much bigger in case of fenugreek, so the leafsof the fenugreeks out here are much larger as compare to the leaves of the control.Similarly, and a case of mustard it was observe that there is approximately 65% increase inthe yield that is so here now you are talking about an oil seed which is 230 grams whereasin case of 380 grams, so it is 65% increase in the mustard.Similarly, in case of sesame if you look at it, so what will observe is there is a higherproduction of sesame which is another oil seed (()) (07:30) and similarly in the caseof alfalfa which is fodder crop there is higher increase.So, if you look at it the profile of crop it observes beetroot, these are the roots,carrots, fenugreek, mustard, sesame, alfalfa that almost covering to vegetable crops.These 2 are the vegetables, then of course some people use fenugreek also as a vegetableor as a spice and a spice crop, then you have mustard which is all seed crop mustard andsesame.And here you are having a fodder crop, so these are the ranges of crop which have beenalready tried out and it has been observed in the field trails and this is the data weare talking from the field trails.These field trails have clearly shown that nano FeS2 application is improving the yieldjust by simple seed treatment.

Video 2: Application of Pyrite Nanoparticle in Rice Crops
So, now if you look at this chart you realize that is 1 set of crops which is missing here.The one which is the major chunk of our food which is a grain crop, so challenge was thattime to try out grain crop something like rice or wheat.So next set of trail data what I am going to show where FeS2 has been used is seed treatmentof rice well rice is grown in 2 different ways.Either it grown by direct seed treatment or it is grown duringtransplantation, so you grow the rice crop in the nursery and then you bring them backinto the field and grow them.So, let us see what is the seed treatment data of rice see but before I get into thatthese crops what I talked about.At least in the case of analysis of the fenugreek, the flavonoid contents what has been observedhas shown.Then most of the flavonoid which are present quercetin, garlic, ascorbic, (10:42) theyare more or less same there is not much difference in their concentrations.So, this is one piece of information what I wanted to share with you, now coming torice.So, the way rice experiment was done and well for those of you I will be providing all thesepapers for you to read.So, you can download these papers and read them that will kind of give you an idea howthese kinds of experiments are being done.So, in the case of rice the experiment was done slightly differently, so what you wantedto observe was does of course by this time it was clear with this multiple crop thatFeS2 seed treatment indeed increases the production of the crop.Now the question was thus this production how far it is from NPK treatment, so as Itold you in the beginning excess use of fertilizer is a challenge.Because excess use of fertilizer lead to contamination of the soil resources, water resources andit creates a lot of other problems, this is 1 aspect of the story.But other aspect of the story is a large continent called Africa where a possibility of fertilizeris not easy, it is a huge challenge there.Similarly, they are parts of Latin America their affectability of fertilizer is a bigchallenge and the say by the same token the small and marginal formers of Asia South eastAsia cannot afford fertilizer unless it is a government subsidy.And this government subsidy and availability of fertilizer is not something so easy, itis a very tricky bargain in the agro-economic center of a country.So, one of the major requirements is somewhere other you have to reduce the fertilizer consumptionhow one can do it.So, in order to test this, so if you look at it the major fertilizer consumption happensin the grain crops where the big chunk of a land investment goes for this growing thesegrains.So, this experiment was done in a way, so the seeds where taken, now we talk about therice crop.So, seeds were divided into 4 different categories as we did in the beginning simple water control,simple FeS2 control.So, the first what you get like this FeS2, now after 12 hours of treatment and by theway the dose is approximately 100 microgram per ml of water.So that essentially means suppose we have for all the seeds whatever you are going totreat if you have 10 ml of water for that then you will have that will contain 10 microgramsof nano pyrite.So, post treatment that FeS2 fragment was divided into 2 parts until what makes doneand the water treated were divided into 2 parts this is equal number.Now what was being done is these were grown in field without just whatever residual nutrientswas present in the soil.So, without supply of any NPK whereas the other water treatment seeds were grown justnormally the way you grow with NPK.Now these 2 sets FeS2 treated, these were also done the same way herewithout NPK treatment and with NPK treatment.So, you observe there are 4 different categories simple water treatment of the seeds dividein 2 parts, 1 was driven in a complete control condition though no additional fertilizerwhatsoever, whereas the other group get a normal fertilizer those what has been givencurrently across the country or the particular regional location where this experiment wasconducted.So, then the FeS2 treated seeds also underwent the same thing 1 was given a control likeyou know grown and of field where there is no added fertilizer was given the other onewas given fertilizer.This is the case which has the maximum input if you look at it, this one hasmaximum input both seed treatment as well as fertilizer.So, now after treatment what was observed whereas 2, 3 interesting observations whichemerged out from this study.And observations are as followed if you look at the base to majority for these crops.So, now and these are normal field, so if you look at days to maturity is for all thegrowth, so if I named as A, B, C, D. So, for all A, B, C, D is all more or less the same,there is no different, now if you look at the plant height.So, if you look at plant height you observe a slight increase in this growth by asideA=B=C where you know here B is slightly more but not significantly.Now if you receive the effective tiller per plant, in that case what you observe is thereis a significant increase in as compare to A which is without NPK and just water treatmentB, C and D are higher more or less same.And in terms of the yields per kilogram what was being observed was inthe case of control whatever talk about this situation A it was 1.32 kilogram/hectare whereasin the case of standard fertilizer application that is which is a group D which is 1.61 inthe case of NPK only, only NPK which is a C without sorry only FeS2 without NPK, noNPK –NPK and this is just +NPK.The number of whether on 1.63 whereas in the case of FeS2+NPK value is 1.68, so in otherword what you are observing is that nano pyrite seed dressing.In the case of rice leads to an NPK equivalent rice production, so this is what emerged outfrom much of these field trials that FeS2 indeed does some very interesting change,it brings about in the seed which is manifested in the form of grain yield as well as vegetableproduction.So now if you look at what all crops have been covered as of now in terms of the vegetablefield trails the crop, in terms of the vegetable spinach then you have beetroot then your carrotand fenugreek as a leaf.There are several people use fenugreek as a green leaf for dietary consumption, in termsof oil seeds sesame and mustard and partly sunflower.Then in terms of for rich crop alfalfa, spices of course we have talked about fenugreek.And in the green crop that is rice, so rice is the only one which is a mono crop, so ifyou look at the spectrum from dicot to monocot it is pretty much working for the whole spectrumof gross family to legume family to all other families.So, the rice trail clearly indicated now we are equipped with a tool which the rice NPKequivalent production which is a feed which was never achieved earlier.So, this is something exceptionally interesting to know as it is possible that 1 can get anNPK equivalent system.So, in other word biology has way to more to offer NPK is not the only way you can gethigher yield but then what are those other ways.So, in the next class we will talk about another aspect of iron pyrite, how this protein moleculecan come very handy to grow crop in nutrient deficient soil.Because here you will observe that it can help in producing equivalent amount of yieldas compare to NPK, thank you.