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Module 1: Nanotechnology in Agriculture

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Characterisation Techniques for Chemical Surface Properties
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XDS)
Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Seed Pre-Treatment
Seed pre-treatment is anything that you do to the seed before you plant them. This includes soaking, changing temperatures to mimic winter, or even keeping them in the dark. Each type of seed has a specific pre-sowing process that will overcome dormancy, and allow germination to take place.

Iron Pyrite
The Iron Pyrite is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 . Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral which is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds and as a replacement mineral in fossils.
Stoichiometric Defects
The compounds in which the number of positive and negative ions are exactly in the ratios indicated by their chemical formulae are called stoichiometric compounds. The defects that do not disturb the stoichiometry (the ratio of numbers of positive and negative ions) are called Stoichiometric Defects.

Seed Stimulant Effect of Iron Pyrite
The evaluation of germination and the identification of seed lots of high performance is an important initiative towards successful crop production, and consequently information from seed laboratories must accurately detect differences in physiological potential among tested seed lots.
The laboratory trials of testing the seed stimulant effect of Iron Pyrite using Chickpea as a model exhibited high root growth, shoot growth and increase in overall biomass. Further, the concentration of Iron remained constant whereas the concentration of Sulphur varied.
Laboratory test results are more easily reproduced in the field when the environment is favorable for emergence and initial seedling growth.

Field Testing
Farmers today have an increasing number of tools for managing crops. The great number of new technologies can often be overwhelming to many farmers.
Sifting through the milieu of technologies to find the tools that really work on-farm is a challenge for farmers and the consultants and agronomists that serve and support production agriculture.
The objective of Field Testing is to determine how different management options perform compared to each other under your environment and cropping system.