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Module 1: Overview of Nanotechnology

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Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials are chemical substances or materials that are manufactured and used at a very small scale. Nanomaterials are developed to exhibit novel characteristics compared to the same material without nanoscale features, such as increased strength, chemical reactivity or conductivity.

Classification of Nanomaterials Based on their Shape and Geometry
Nanocages
Nanocrystal
Nanobelts
Nanoscale
Nanoparticle
Nanofiber
Nanocomposite
Nanostructure

Classification of Nanomaterials based on their Chemical Nature
Organic Nanomaterials
Inorganic Nanomaterials
Carbon based Nanomaterials

Methods of Synthesizing Nanomaterials
In general, Top-Down and Bottom-Up are the two main approaches for nanomaterials synthesis.
Top-Down: It involves the size reduction from bulk materials.
Bottom-Up: It involves the synthesis of material from atomic level.

Top-Down Approach
Thermal Decomposition Method
Mechanical Milling/Ball Milling
Laser Ablation
Sputtering

Bottom-Up Approach
Chemical Vapour Deposition
Sol-Gel Process
Pyrolysis
Biological Synthesis