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Module 1: Historical Perspectives of Agriculture

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Agriculture
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.

Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes.

The applications of Nanotechnology in agricultural production are as follows:

Nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement.
The application of nanosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals.
Nanodevices for the genetic engineering of plants

Precision Farming
Precision Farming is an approach where inputs are utilised in precise amounts to get increased average yields, compared to traditional cultivation techniques.

Natural Agriculture
Natural Agriculture is a means of cultivating wholesome food with pure seeds and without the use of any fertilizers, chemicals or additives. It emphasizes the use of indigenous, natural seeds, encourages seed-saving, and stresses the cultivation of soil in its natural state.

Modern Agriculture
Modern agriculture is an evolving approach to agricultural innovations and farming practices that help farmers increase efficiency and reduce the number of natural resources like water, land, and energy necessary to meet the world's food, fuel, and fiber needs.

Environmental Impacts of Modern Agriculture
The top fertile soil of the farmland is removed due to the excessive water supply. This leads to the loss of nutrient-rich soil that hampered productivity. It also causes global warming because the silt of water bodies induces the release of soil carbon from the particulate organic material.