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Social and Cognitive Development

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Social and Cognitive Development
Hello and welcome to the course, Introduction to Advanced Cognitive Processes. I am ArkVerma from IIT, Kanpur and this is the final week of the course. During the last two lectures, I have talked to you about various aspects of development in the first ah lecture I talked to you about the biological aspects that ah effect ah human development ah their ah role of the ah you know heredity, genes, prenatal influences and so on and so forth. In the last lecture, I talked to you about the initial abilities that a young one has bonded with abilities relating to you know ah vision hearing taste smell motor abilities and so on and so forth.We also talked to you about um the various theories of cognitive development we talkedto you about at length ah about ah Piaget's ah theory of development, we talked to youabout ah information processing theories, knowledge acquisition theories, social culturaltheories all of these various perspectives that look at how the cognitive developmentof the child really happens . In today's lecture I will try and take this talk about development to a slightly different direction. I will talk to you about some of the interesting aspects you know remember this course is advanced cognitive processes.Some of the higher ah ability, some of the higher ah functions that children ah and adultsyou know deal with how the development of these kind of things happen. So, let us takethis ah ah slightly further. Ah one of the things that ah ah I mentionedwhen I was talking about ah Piaget's ah theory of ah you know concrete operations if I amright ah was this aspect of ah egocentric thinking ah children ah when they are veryyoung they cannot appreciate what others are thinking you know they cannot appreciate theother perspective ah that basically is a is a very interesting thing because part of beingan adult basically involves doing this exactly you know, part of being an adult ah um ahinvolves understanding other peoples mind you know what is this person thinking aboutah what is their expectations, what are their beliefs and assumption and so on and so forth.And this is something that you know that influences our behavior a lot this is something thattells us how to behave in a particular how to behave ah with a particular person in aparticular manner. Suppose for example, you know you come backfrom ah school and you find you know you have to something to say to your father, but younotice that he is not really in a very good mood. Now is that the time that you will goand ask for you know raise in pocket money or something like that something that youknow that he is really not going to be very happy about. As adults we kind of you knowtackle around these problems very well we notice what is a good time to tell somebodysomething ah what is a good time to react in a particular manner to this particularperson . So, ah when ah you know ah this ability isnot something that also suddenly really happens ah I am very much appreciate this idea oflooking at development as a continuum and not really as you know stages where one stageah ends and something else kind of happens almost out of nowhere. So, this is somethingthat the child has to learn you know we ah the children have to ah grasp this and theyhave to ah um, you see that children when they are younger ah they are not really verymindful of what ah others are thinks. Suppose for example, if they are you knowstuck on asking for something if we are kind of stuck on ah being stubborn about some ahparticular thing and they are being kind of you know very you know they are kind of ahah being very picky and they are kind of you know being very finicky and stuff ah thesethings ah ah kind of get ah lesser and lesser as the child grows up and earlier when thesethings will be happening irrespective of whatever the mood of the parent is you will see thateven if children have to ah you know be stubborn and they have to be ask ask about somethingincessantly they will wait for the right time. They will automatically grasp that ok, todayyou know it is not a great time to talk the father it is not a great ah thing to talkto the mother about and these things also they are developing.So, when you are talking about cognitive development when you are talking about overall developmentof an individual these are also skills that you should look at we should look at actuallyah um and a how ah how is the development of these ah scales happening. Part of allof what we ah what I was just talking about comes under this ah um you know bigger conceptof theory of mind. Another term for this is this aspect of metacognition you know we occasionallyreflect on our thinking process as well. By evaluating ah what we would do in a particularsituation or you know wondering how we could have been ah you know ah believing in somethingthat was not correct. So, you are also we are also looking at ourselves ah in in insome sense. So, that is referred to as metacognition. So, these two things metacognition and theoryof mind and they are kind of you know very related ah concepts ah is also a psychologistshave been interested in looking at how how was these theory is developing, how does thechild start appreciating ah somebody elses ah you know ah point of view perspective soon and so forth . So, researchers ah basically have attemptedto study the child's knowledge about these basic mental states such as desires, percepts,beliefs, knowledge, ah thoughts, intentions, feelings etcetera ah and they have been ahdoing this ah by devising very in ah you know innovative experiments very highly ah youknow engineers experiments. Ah one of the experiments in one of a veryinteresting experiment ah basically ah an experimental basically you know ah um ah ithe is ah holding a box and this ah candy box has pictures of candy ah on it and then heshows this box to this 5 year old kid and he asked to the kid that ok ah what does thisbox contain and the kid basically looks at ah the box and ah you know he just say isthat ok that box must contain candy. Now, the interesting thing happens you knowin the then ah after the answer is got the child is asked to look inside the box anddo the child surprise. The child discovers that ok the box has crayonsinstead of candy now then the experimenter asks ah ok now you know that there is crayonshere, but not candy how do you think the other person this other friend of yours who havenot really shown what is inside here what would he think that ah is there in this box?So, the child answers candy ah now what happens is. So, I mean just hold on ah with this onenow the what happens is the experimenter tries the same procedure with a 3 year old ah kid.So, the first ah set ah first 2 questions have been asked to 5 year old kids.Now, what the experiment does is ok let me do this with a 3 year old kid same questionah same kind of procedure the first answer is again candy, but when you ask the childthat ah the second question you know what will the other person think ah ah that isthere in this thing now that you know that there are crayons the child kind of ah umah answers that no I think the other person will also think that there are crayons.What is ah happening here if you kind of pause it and ah think ah here ah what is happeningis that the preschooler the 3 year old child has not really ah has not really developedthis ability to fully understand that other people also have minds and thoughts whichare different from the their own you know ah because the child was shown the crayonand the child kind of now cannot really check whether it is not conscious of the fact thatthe other person has not really seen that there are crayons here and they will thinkbased on the picture and based on the box that it is candy here because the child knowsthat now I know that there are crayons here the child also believes that the other personalso knows that there are crayons in this box.So, ah this is something you know ah the child ah needs to ah grasp, the child needs to developand master over the course of time. So, Bartsch and Wellma ah basically they did this ah youknow ah experiment in 1995 they basically argued that the developmental sequence ofah you know things like metacognition theory of mind basically has three steps. So, whatare the three steps? About around the age of 2 years, children have an elementary ahyou know conception of simple desires emotions and perceptual experiences, ok.So, they basically know that ok people ah have simple desires like I want to have milk,I want to have ah sweet etcetera etcetera. They have a very rudimentary understandingof emotions you know for them as I was saying earlier ah if a ah desired outcome is thereI am happy, if an undesired outcome is there I am not happy something like that, ok. So,there are very rudimentary understanding of both desires and emotions and perceptual experiences.They understand that people you know can have wants and they can be afraid of things theycan like things and they cannot like things, but they do not really ah um appreciate thefact that people mentally also represent both objects ah you know and their own desiresand beliefs. So, they these things are not really wellah ah drafted out in their brain. In the second stage which is around 3 yearsof age children begin to talk about beliefs and thoughts as well as desires. So, theykind of now ah start talking about that you a reality or something else desire or somethingelse, but there are beliefs as well ah somebody can think and ah you know ah in a slightlymore abstract fashion as well and at this stage they seem to understand that beliefscan be false as well as true. So, they now ah ah ah you know beginning to grasp theseah higher order kind of ah you know ah activities and that they also start appreciating thatyou know beliefs can differ from people to people. A different people can have differentsets of beliefs. Finally, ah at around the age of a 4 childrenbegin to understand peoples thoughts and beliefs ah you know affect their behaviors and thatpeople can have beliefs that do not affect ah reali[ty]- they do not affect reality.So, the ideas they start ah you know ah ah um thinking in terms of that you know otherpeople can have different kinds of thoughts other people can have different kinds of beliefsand different people believe in different ways because of their own thoughts and beliefsah which might ah not be exactly the same ah thoughts and believe that ah the that Iam having for that matter as a child. So, these ah these are the three stages inwhich this ah you know ah the ah aspect of a development of theory of mind has been ahyou know um ah captured and has been proposed. Now, one of the major ah implications oneof the major applications let us say of the theory of mind ah research is in understandingthe experiences of autistic individuals. Now, you might have heard of autism ah it is aserious disorder in which a children seem unresponsive you know ah to others and theytend to have a significant problem in a communicating with others building social ah you know relationshipsand those kind of things. One of the one of the very characteristic things is that thesechildren seem a very little interested in interacting our ah socially communicatingwith the individuals. Say for example, they might not really be ah emotionally very expressivethey will not smile a back at you ah if you smile at them and those those kind of things.Now, a Baron-Cohen, Simon Baron-Cohen ah basically suggested that autistic kids might be lackingthis fundamental theory of mind you know, this understanding of what the others arefeeling or say for example, this aspect of metacognition about a reflecting about theirown thought processes and a stuff which might be preventing them from understanding othersfeelings, desires and beliefs as well. So, this ah ah this ah can be one of the majorah symptoms or factors in ah you know ah people who are and a children who are suffering fromautism. Now, because this ah fundamental theory ofmind is absent ah people can ah you know ah seem like any other objects to these ah autisticchildren you know it is just like a table ah you know a. So, a person is just equivalentto a table or a chair and does not really need an emotional interaction to develop abond ah leading to these children being very less interested in a others ah or in a youknow different kinds of social interactions. So, this is again one of the ah um ah veryinteresting aspects ah a higher order ah ability that children develop over the course of theirlife. Another higher order ah ability that childrentend to develop ah gradually is this ah is this sense of moral judgment. So, Piaget wasnot only interested in cognitive development, but he was also interested in children ahchildren's moral judgment as well you know how does the child appreciate a good and badhow does the child differentiate from what is right and what is wrong you know theirunderstanding of moral rules what is right, is right is there an absolute thing that isright or ah wrong or these are social convention there are there are ways in which societiesah expect you to behave, there are ah conventions that we follow.So, Piaget the kind of you know he basically believes that the overall ah level of cognitivedevelopment ah um you know the children's overall level of cognitive develop will basicallydetermine their moral judgment as well. So, it is it is a bit like saying that you knowah people in the formal operational stage have better moral ah understanding as comparedto children who are in the ah concrete or ah you know ah um ah pre operational stagesas well. So, those those kind of things. Now, on the basis of the observations thatPiaget made you know he used to observe a lot of kids and spend a lot of time with themobserving their minute activities. So, on the basis of the observations ah that Piagetmade he proposed that children's understandings of rules ah develops in four stages. Now,before I really start talking about this ah rules ah are a good way of appropriating thesense of moral judgment, but they might not be you know they might not really reflectthe the more richer sense of models, but again we are talking about children's developmentso, this we can use this as a reference to talk about.Now, ah the first stage ah Piaget ah suggests is around ah happens around the pre-operationalperiod ah wherein the child ah you know follows a set of private idiosyncratic rules you know,I like this. This seems right to me, I will do this. Ok, those ah those ah kind of things.Say for example, and by this stage children ah ah also ah start looking at the environmentin terms of features and categories. So, you know if you ask this child to sort ah playitems ah using color or size or shape they might be able to do it. So, there is a certaindegree of ah of cognitive development which ah is leading to follow a particular kindof a modeled is it is not really a very close link by the way.Ah, in the second stage which is ah happening around 5 years the child develops a senseof obligation to follow rules you know given the kind of a environment and society ah childrenare brought up in the child starts to think that you know this is a rule and this mustbe followed, ok. Ah it treats ah the child starts treating these ah rules as absolutemoral imperatives ah handed down by some authority. So, my mother has said this, I will followthis ah verbatim and on you know hundred times sort of hundred or my teacher has told methat this has to happen and I have to follow this hundred times out of hundred. So, thisis you know. So, their understanding of rules is rigid in some sense, but it kind of a reflectsa degree of a lack of understanding that is what I mean we can kind of a we might be mixingthis some things up here. Now, in the in the third stage, children beginto appreciate that rules you know some rules ah for that matter are just social conventions.You know their cooperative agreements ah that can be arbitrarily changed if everyone agreessuppose for example, you know parents tell their children to share stuff now, ah tilla particular time the child will ah blindly obey that you know my mother has said thatI have to share things and I should share things irrespective of whatever is happeningby a certain age the child's ah starts appreciating the fact that it is just a suggestion thatif two people are agreed they have to share. But the child will also start a breachingthe fact that you cannot share at a given point if you do not like the person if theperson is not sharing back those those kind of things, ok. So, children start realizingthat rules are just social conventions made by a people and are changeable can be workedaround with, ok. Ah their moral realism also declines. Earlierah rules are treated as permanent and not subjected to modification, in the second stage.By this stage their moral realism also kind of starts declining ah they will start takinginto account other and more sophisticated more richer factors. For example, they aremoral ah um you know ah they will when talking about moral judgments when ah talking aboutdeciding punishments as the etcetera, ah children in this stage start ah taking into accountthings like intentions ah you know ah ah and the you know ah you know the consequencesand those kind of . Say for example, ah in the second stage if somebody has broken arule he deserves a punishment you know you spoke in the class you broke something youare not supposed to break this. So, now, that you have broken this you haveto get this quantum of punishment again that is kind of ah given by ah sources of authority. By this third stage what we are ah says is that children start taking into accountthings like ok he did not intend to break it. So, he does not deserve the punishmenteven though something is broken and the rule is violated. So, this is how ah um basicallyah ah this ah is ah you know really panning out.Ah, now the final in the fourth stage ah youngsters ah start showing an interest now I am talkingabout adolescents and young adults by this time a youngster starts showing and showingan interest in generating rules to deal with situations they have never encountered, ok.So, they have kind of now figured out how the moral ah ah thing of the how the moralfabric of the word is working and the kind of also you know generating rules ah and generatingrules and ah principles for sometimes situation that they have not really encountered themselveseven . You know this stage is characterized by an ideological code of moral reasoningyou know I believe in these ideas and my reasoning would work according to these ideas, ok .Addressing wider social issues say for example, ah people should be kind to everybody ah youshould ah not treat animals badly all those kind of things and these broad ah you knowah ideological codes start showing in ah you know and this ah children start ah youngstersstart using them in their personal and interpersonal situations ah very liberally across the board.Suppose, say for example, a young adult is a smitten by a particular kind of ideologyor they starts ah following a particular kind of idle then those kind of things they willstart appropriating ah you know in in different situations.Now, there are other theories of moral development as well for example, Kohlberg has ah donea lot of work on moral development in children and he basically extends the work by Piagetstart he ah and the typically what he did was he started giving ah children ah you knowmoral dilemmas to solve. We have talked about personal moral dilemmas ah earlier he wouldgive a problems to children say for example, you know if ah there is a child whose motheris sick and ah you know the child goes to the medicine shop, he does not really haveenough money to buy the medicine. So, the child steals the medicine brings that andah you know brings that medicine and gives it to his mother.Now, is he has he done a right thing or a wrong thing? If I ask this ah question tochildren of different ages ah I will expect to get a different kind of response and onthe basis of the kind of response that is got ah Kohlberg divided ah the developmentof a children ah or development of moral reasoning into three levels which have kind of a 6 stages.So, I will not really go into a lot of detail, but I will just tell you how the 3 years ahyou know levels work. So, the first level is ah preconventionalmorality. So, preconventional morality is ah is they are basically characterized byyou know orientation towards punishment. You know ah you obey rule ah to avoid punishmentyou disobey as soon as you disobey you ah deserve a punishment things like that ah.The second stage is that orientation has to be reward you know people confirm ah to particularkinds of instruction to particular kinds of a moods of thought to obtain rewards and tohave favors returned say for example, if I believe this if I agree with you here I expectyou to ah agree to me at a different point in time.Then comes conventional morality a conventional morality basically has this good boy goodgirl kind of orientation you know if I follow this moral code I will be considered as agood boy by my teachers by my parents by my friends etcetera etcetera ok. So, the childis basically confirming ah he do not really understanding the moral code as yet, but heis just confirming that ok if I have six sticks in all in these columns ah then I am considereda good boy and I will take every effort to not take any of these columns.So, this is something and the fourth stage here ah this part of the second level ah basicallyis about authority orientations. So, the children ah um ah will basically or that ah this stagebasically talks about upholding laws and social rules to avoid censure of the authoritiesand feelings of guilt about not doing ones duty are also ah you know can be experienced.So, I am doing whatever I am doing because my father has said this if I do not do itthen I will probably be in trouble or if I am doing this ah because my teachers havesaid this my school principal has said this if I am not doing this I might land up withpunishment. So, this is the preconventional morality and that is the conventional moralitywhich generally you know the society kind of tends to follow at large.Now, the third is the post conventional morality the this is when you are talking about whenchildren have achieved a certain degree of motivation ah certain degree of a mature ahyou know maturity. So, ah then they ah they kind of start looking at things as you knowthe social contract orientation is there. Actions are guided by principles commonlyagreed on as essential to the public welfare and his principles are a basically upheldto retain the respect of peers and thus also self respect.So, now you doing ah something ah now you are not ah hurting animals because it is notlike somebody will punish you, but it is because you want to be ah seen as a kind person youknow. So, you are aspiring to that ah you know a personal goal of kindness and thatis why you are not doing, nobody is forcing, there is ah nobody looking at you there isno punishment reward looming on your head, but the fact is you are doing certain things.So, that you kind of ah you know ah obey a sort of a social contract and the social contractis basically something that is in the larger good of the society. So, those those kindof things. Finally, ah there is this ethical principleorientation again kind of ah um ah I mean there are things that are overlapping here. Ah actions guided by a self chosen ethical principles which usually value justice dignityequality and the principles are helps to avoid self condemnation I will feel very bad ifI do not do it I will feel ah have this ah code of conduct suppose or say for example,you know you divi[de]- you people will start looking at themselves and having xyz characteristicsthese are this is my code of conduct this is what I think should be done, this is whatI think should not be done. My personal code of conduct says I should not teach I ah Ishould not cheat I should not lie I should not ah ah hurt others. So, whatever I am goingto do is going to be governed by this ah you know set of ah ah rules. So, personal so,a self condemnation needs to be avoided. So, these are the three kinds of moralitythis is basically the progression ah given and again I am not really ah um ah sayingthat ah strict age why is a rule kind of needs to follow this, but this is how ah the developmentof moral reasoning ah might happen as far as ah you know Kohlberg is ah concerned. So,Kohlberg basically believe that ah you know individual develops with age across thesethree stages. Now, let us talk to a different aspect ofdevelopment and you have talked about ah um you know a moral development moral ah youknow metacognition theory of mind and moral judgment. Now, let us talk a little bit aboutthe emotional development part of an individual. Now, emotional development basically alsohas aspects of nature and nurture one of these aspects that is more biologically predeterminedis this aspect of temperament now temperament basically refers to individuals ah individualdifferences in attention in arousal and reactivity to new or novel situations, ok.So, these differences ah basically start appearing very early when the child is just born andthey are relatively stable and they are long lasting suppose for example, there is a finickyah child very unhappy, very difficult to handle child. It is highly probable that part ofthese characteristics will continue ah throughout the child's life, ok. So, this is the biologicalah aspect of emotional development. Thomas and Chess, 1997 they divided infantsinto 4 categories based on temperament rating. So, they could measure temperament let mesay that 4 kinds of temperaments can be observed let me just ah very quickly tell you aboutthem a easy babies are happy and cheerful babies. They have regular sleeping and eatinghabits they adapt very quickly to new situations and they basically form around 40 percentof the sample. Now, again I am talking about the sample; sample is ah US ah based ok. So,these studies are basically conducted in the US , ah there is about 40 percent the samplethat ah they have in mind. There are slow to warm up babies, but you know who takessome time before ah they will ah be comfortable with you, ok.So, about 15 percent of the sample they are slightly more withdrawn they are very moodyah and they tend to take a long time to adapt to new situations. So, this is the secondkind. Then there is this ah difficult babies it is just around 10 percent the sample, butthey are very ah fussy they are fearful of new situations they will not really reactto strangers nicely ah and they are very intense in their ah ah you know reactions if theyare crying they are crying too loudly, they are crying very intensely ah and those thosekind of things. Now, one of the other ah things it is notreally a category is that you know some ah babies do not fit to any of these categories.This is by the way a long ah large number it is around thirty 5 percent of the entiresample which will have a variety of traits ah and they will share all of these traitsfrom the other 3 ah categories. So, there are 4 kinds of situations here 4 categoriesyou can imagine and these are the 4 categories in which you can broadly divide a particularyou know sample of children say a children can differ in their temperament.Now, researchers have concluded that majority of infants develop a distinct temperamentsvery early you know usually in a first 2 to 3 months of life and that these temperamentsthey occur largely because of genetic factors rather than learning experiences because youstart measuring temperament because you start talking about temperament. Even ah you knowjust at their time when the child is born you know you can just ah ah look at you canjust see and observe that that this child is going to be very tricky to handle you know,this child ah starts crying as soon as he is separated from his mother, this child isa slightly fussy about ah particular habits you know he has irregular sleeping and eatinghabits. These are the things that you can start make make out already by the time thatthe child is born and so, a researchers have concluded that this has to be more of a biologicaltrait, biological characteristic rather than something that the child has learned fromthe environment you know learn from the parents or siblings or peers.Now, ah so, while about 10 to 15 percent of Caucasian babies inherit a fearful temperament,about 40 percent of Caucasian babies inherit of fearless temperament. So, again it thatdistribution could be very different ah across different kinds of population.Now, emotional development basically has to be an interaction between the temperament,that is, the nature part of the thing how is the general temperament or nature of thechild versus positive and negative environmental feedback, how is the how are the parents reactingto the temperament of . So, this is basically what nature and nurture a question kind of leads us to.So, this is all from me about development we have talked about biological social developmentwe have talked about cognitive development as well. In the next lecture onward, I probablytake one of the very important cases from the the cognitive development profile. I willtalk to you about memory and stuff and how memory develops during the lifespan of theindividual. Thank you .