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Emotions and Decision Making

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Emotions and Decision Making
Hello and welcome, In the last lecture is also I also started talking to you about the effects of particular kinds of emotion, on the process of judgment and decision making we will continue our conversation with respect to that and let us now talk about a couple of other emotions.Let us talk about sadness and decision making, now sadness resembles anxiety, because bothare negative emotional states, but one of the things that characterizes sadness morethan anxiety is that sadness is related to more often absence of positive effect as comparedto anxiety.Sadness is in some sense you know we keep positive emotions happy and sad on the 2 continuumand in that sense sadness is basically referred to as some more of a loss of or more, moreof a deficiency of any positive effect.So, that is one of the things that characteristically differentiates sadness from anxiety, now because sadness is basically about the absence of positive effect it is kind of almost intuitive to expect that sad individuals experience environment as being relatively unrewarding you know it is not happy, it is relatively unrewarding and this often motivates a sad people to try and avoid the sadness to try and come out of the sad state and in that sense, they would sometimes you know they are in that sense seeking some kinds of rewards, they are continuously trying to not be sad they are consciously trying to change their you know scenario.So, that is something which we will have to remember about what you know sad people behave like . Now people have studied the effects of sadnessand judgment in decision making and what is basically did this review, whether the kindof review several studies on the basis of how you know what kind of emotions interactwith decision making processes.Now, sadness was actually found to basically regard the likelihood sad individuals of foundto regard the likelihood of negative events as more probable you know they basically thinkif you ask them you know whether there is a possibility that you would have a seriousillness or there will be dead or you know there will be destructed that kind of things.So, sad individuals were found to regard the likelihood of health hazards and adverse life events much greater than happy individuals.In a study on risk aversion by Raghunathan and Pham in 1999 sadness caused participants to select the high-risk job 78 per cent of the participants selected the high-risk jobas compared to only 56 percent of the people who were in the neutral mood.You remember I was talking about 2 jobs job A and job B, where job A is high salary lowjob security job and job B is average salary high risk job security . So, this in thisstudy 78 percent of the sad individuals were to take the risk in as a referring to this trend and trying to come out of this stage even though taking risks is involved.So, a 78 per cent of individuals took that risk they wanted the high salary low job security job because they want to come out of their state.Also finding can be explained on the basis that you know participants were motivatedto obtain the reward of high pay associated with the high-risk option they are not reallyI mean in that sense for them everything is anyways going to go down will.So, why not really you know die trying that is kind of the attitude that sad individuals or extremely sad individuals will display in different situations.Now some of the research has focused on the decision making processes that you know thatthese individuals use when they in they are in sad mood, now when you talking about particularkind of a decision making process literature has basically distinguishes 2 kinds of processing2 types of evolution evaluation of alternatives that goes on.So, firstly, there is systematic or analytic processing where the individual considersor options ways them compares them against each other which is this one is a relativelyslow and it is rather consciously controlled, this is the analytic processing deliberativeprocessing.Second is there the heuristic processing which is relatively effortless and it involves the use of heuristics you know heuristics are shortcuts which may work may not work, but they are shortcuts they give results very quickly.So, sad individuals basically people have said there is evidence of sad individualstend to use the analytic processing a lot more as compared to heuristic processing.In a literature review, Schwarz in the year 2000 concluded that being in a sad mood causespeople to use a processing strategy in which much of the attention is paid to details youknow analysis are done options are waiting how we like the amount of my sadness these things are done.So, you will say this sad individual use analytical processing deliberative processing a lot more as compared to individuals you know affected with different other kinds of emotions.Now De Vries and colleagues in 2008 hypothesize that people are most satisfied with theirdecision making when they have used a preferred strategy.So, they just wanted to test that what kind of decision making strategies people are usedand they found that people are satisfied when they have used the strategy they would preferred.So, they tested this by requiring participants to use either a heuristic intuitive way oranalytic deliberative way of processing when making a particular decision.Now as predicted participants put into a sad mood by watching a clip from you know theSchindler's list was a you know amazing movie, Schindler's list were more satisfied withtheir decision following analytic and deliverable deliberative style of processing and thenthey were when they were supposed to use the heuristic or in intuitive kind of processing.So, in that sense again it kind of confirms this thing that you know sad individuals areusing analytic processing paying attention to all of the details weighing everythingbefore making the final decision now so that was about sadness.Let us talk about a different emotion let us talk about anger.Now, anger is a negative emotion anger is a something that is not really desirable,but I will just kind of briefly mentioned that anger even though it is regarded broadlyas a negative emotional state.It can be a moderately positive emotion as well it can be viewed as negatively moderatelypositive emotion as well.If the individual believed he can control he or she can control the situation and dominatethe disliked others, you know sometimes in a place of anger you think that if I am goingto show anger the other person is going to listen to me, you know if I am going to showanger that that person will be afraid of me and they will agree to whatever I have tosay.So, we were talking about sadness and you know there is; obviously, enough evidencenow that sadness kind of makes individuals follow the analytic deliberative style ofprocessing, but now let us move on to different emotion let us talk about anger.Now anger is a negative emotion, anger is a state that you would not really want tobe in, but anger even though it is a negative emotional state it can be you know viewedas a moderately positive emotion if the individual believes that he or she you know can controlthe situation better or can dominate disliked others.The fact is say for example, if somebody feels that you know if I am angry if I am showinganger the other people will listen to me if I am angry you know everybody will be afraidof me and I can get whatever I want you know just that display of angered.So, one of the things is sometimes people start misconstruing their anger as a positiveemotion and they kind of reinforce ways in which they can show and harbor anger and manythey can make use of their anger whenever they want to.Now, this is interesting so, there are kind of there is a sort of a literature which saysthat you know some people might be angered as they you know more masculine and more youknow power kind everything so; obviously, there is a slight evidence that says thatmaybe some people in some sense construe anger as a slightly positive emotion I will comeback to that in a bed.Now, another important thing about anger is that there are important cross cultural avery important cross cultural differences in the way anger is perceived is understoodor expressed in some cultures anger is considered nice.It is considered you know let us say it could be considered more powerful, more masculine,more acceptable in their culture, but in other cultures it could be completely opposite andexample I would take is the massive anger people in the Peruvian Amazon they are basicallya very piece loving people and they basically would the other be afraid than be angry theywould try and the try and avoid anger at all costs.So, this is interesting that how anger is understood across cultures and societies mightalso be very different so, how do you measure the effect of anger on decision making, howdoes this really happen.There is one very interesting term is a very interesting German term which kind of alsolinks anger to the positive emotion thing is that anger can lead to a positive emotionalstate if is Schadenfreude is happening.So, Schadenfreude is basically a term which is about experiencing pleasure at the misfortuneof others . Now, Hareli and Weiner in 2002 they foundthis Schadenfreude is basically in greater for you know is greater for people thoughwho are angry . So, leach and spears also they kind of conducted this research and the,what kind of studying a fictitious competition among 2 universities and you know the studentswere basically supposed to react to one of the universities winning.So, one of the university is winning.So, the failure of the more successful university basically generated more Schadenfreude thein the, you know in these participants.So, much of this Schadenfreude there was basically occurring because of the participants angerbased on you know the inferiority of their own videos it is.So, because they know that the university is not doing very well and it is it is slightlyinferior to the other one to the major university.So, when this major university is losing these people are deriving some joy out of it.So, this is a little bit about how anger can be you know construed in some cases as a positiveemotion, let us come back to the conventional thing anger is; obviously, a negative emotionanger is something that kind of is difficult to handle.So, events associated with the anger the or events that kind of caused or triggered angerare; obviously, remembered as unpleasant events in addition the consequences of anger basicallyyou know aggression violence etcetera and also leads to more negative emotional statesyou know it kind of fuels this entire vicious cycle.Now the effects of anger on judgment are very different from those of anxiety or sadnessnow that is very important to remember.So, Waters in 2008 he kind of you know mentions in a review that anger was generally associatedwith fairly optimistic judgments about the likelihood of negative events people who areyou know who show display a lot of anger who are generally more angry, they kind of makemore optimistic judgments about how things will happen it is just kind of puzzling though.In other words basically what us says that the perceived likelihood of negative eventsis also low and in contrast both sadness and anxiety basically are associated with morepessimistic judgment.So, is amazing that how anger is kind of biasing people to make more positive judgments .Now, optimism of agree angry individuals I mean again I am saying is a slightly surprisingin the view of the fact that these are individuals who work you know those individuals who arecharacteristically angry I have a more I have much more chance of having cardiovascularproblems or getting divorce in those kind of things.One of the that I could actually share with you is that probably because anger is emotionwhich is closely linked with power and you know you cannot be angry at a person who whoseless power whose more powerful the new things like that.So, maybe that that relationship is kind of contributing to this aspect that angry individualsmake more optimistic judgments about how life will pan out for them so, that thus basicallyvery interesting also as I was saying you know there is aspect of power.So, anger is associated with perceived control over others you know those people who canafford to show anger, who can afford to express anger, perceive themselves more in controlof others as compared to individuals who are sad or anxious so, that is one thing.So, angry individuals the feeling you know they feel in control and thus they the kindof thing that they can determine their own destiny which makes them optimistic and moreconfident about the future.In contrast anxious and sad individuals they have much less perceived controls and theybasically feel themselves at the mercy of fate you know whatever the situations willpan out we will have to live through them and those kind of things . So, as a resultthey are more pessimistic about the future they kind of do not really have a lot of positivethings to look forward to in life.So, I mean that is just the contrast that you could make.Now it is popularly assumed that anger greatly reduces are ability to think rationally andto make sensible decisions.So, there is this quote from Ralph Waldo Emerson in a particular movie and it says anger blowsthe light out of the reason you know anger blows out the light of reason.So, the idea is if you are angry you are not a capable of making rational correct you knowproperly measured judgments let us look at some evidence about this.So, Bright and Goodman - Delahunty in 2006 they kind of they wanted to conduct a studywhere participants for mock jurors and they had to decide on the guilt or innocence ofa man who is alleged to have murdered his wife.Now, so, this judgment was supposed to may supposed to be made, now some of these jurorswill basically made angry by showing them gruesome photographs taken of the murderedwoman the angry jurors you know.So, the kind of anger is induce what was found was that is and the jurors were more than4 times likely you know than the non angry ones to avoid guilty verdict.So, it is certain that the decision is you know decision making is being influenced bythe fact by the fact that they are angry so, that is one evidence.Another example was reported by Coleman in 2010 fairly recently he studied the sunk costheuristic you know sunk cost is basically it is an increased tendency to invest resourcesin an uncertain project following previous failure with that project.So, if you think here this is not really training out well, but you kind of still pumping inmoney in those in that project.So, that you know it does not all go bad it is like you know putting good money afterbad, but some money has already been lost, but you kind trying to put in more money,so that you recover that aspect.So, Coleman in 2010 used hypothetical problem in which the students could be decide whetherto do a quotes for which they had already paid in advance without an sunk cost or theycould switch to a course offering a better chance of success.So, this was the thing the key finding was that the sunk cost effect was greater in angryparticipants than those in a sad or a neutral mood.So, thus and it is kind of increasing the tendency for students to making to make asub optimal decision.So, they are kind of you know following the sun cost heuristic.Now, one could wonder one could ask this question and why is it happening that you know angeris impairing the quality of decision making.So, there are some answers which can be discussed.So, according to Litvak and colleagues 2010 anger leads to increased use of heuristicprocessing we are talking about sad individuals using analytic processing.So, anger is leading to the increased use of heuristic processing and reduced use ofanalytic processing . So, what is happening is that they are not weighing the optionscompletely they are kind of in some is probably overconfident and they you know optimisticin their judgment.So, they are kind of taking shortcuts and just doing what the anger is asking them todo.Convincing evidence that anger increases the use of heuristic processing was provided bySmall and Lerner in 2008.So, it was a task where participants were giving a decision making task and they hadto decide how much welfare assistance was should be received by fictitious a fictitiouscharacter who was a 25 year old divorced woman with 3 children.Now angry participants somehow awarded her less assistance they did not really look intothe entire you know situation the, whatever the conditions were than the neutral or thesad mood state participants.There was also a further condition in which these angry participants had to perform anextra additionally cognitively demanding tasks, at the same time as they were making thesedecisions this was basically done in order to check whether these extra tasks has youknow coerces them to use a different method.But the key finding was that the addition of second cognitively demanding tasks didnot really affect the amount of the welfare assistance that this lady was awarded.Now this implication is the implication of this management setting is that angry participantsprimarily are using a heuristic processing even in the presence or absence of a secondarytask.So, basically the whole point is that you know they just wanted to follow a particularand if a shortcut and they are actually going by it .Now further ask and Granhag in 2007 the induced anger in experienced police investigatorsby asking them to recall an event that they had encountered during this police were andthat would have caused anger or sadness so, 2 kinds of emotions are invoked.After that, police investigators read the summary of a criminal case together with thestatements by 2 witnesses now fine they had to judge these witnesses on several measureslike reliability trustworthiness and so on and they had to judge the probability of theguilt of the 2 among the 2 witnesses . Now, the key filing here was that angry participantsthe engaged in more heuristic or superficial looking of the facts superficial processingof the information about the case than did sad one.So, here you can see how angry and sad people are processing the same information that hasbeen given to them.For example, the judgments made by the angry participants for less influenced and thoseare the sad participants by the content of the witness statement they are just kind ofmade of their mind and they are not really getting into the detail of the statements.So, this is an proof of the fact that anger is not really a very conducive emotion todecision making.So, that that was about anger let us move to positive mood happiness optimism what doesit do for decision making let us talk about that.Now positive mood has been linked to what is referred refer to as an optimistic biasyou know generally people over happier who are more positive they tend to show what iscalled an optimistic bias they judge you know the judgment is that they are more likelythan other people to experience positive events, but less likely than other people to experiencenegative events . Individuals in a positive or a good mood theywould continuously try and continue this state they will try and maintain the state of happinessthey will try and avoid anything that could actually you know end this happiness thatcould disturb this happiness.So, Drace and colleagues in 2009 they carried out several experiments on the optimisticbias with mood state being manipulated.So, the idea was they wanted to test the optimistic bias, but they wanted to manipulate the moodof the participant and see how this optimistic bias changes with different mood there was.So, there was much general evidence and they kind of were using you know pictures and musicto induce these moods there was much general evidence for optimistic bias in their studyin the tasks they did more importantly; however, the extent of this optimistic bias was verysimilar across both positive negative and neutral mood state.So, for people who are generally happy their optimism kind of extends across the board.The negative findings of Drace and colleagues; however, contrasted with previous research.So, in this study you see there is no difference in the kind of optimism bias that is existingacross people who are having positive states negative states or even neutral states .Now, that is not really what the literature had been saying till recently.So, it is just one negative study whether earlier research has been showing consistentlythat individuals in a positive mood state perceive themselves as less likely to experiencenegative events than did sad individuals.So, that is something that is established and what is kind of wrote about this in 2008.Also individuals in a positive mood state are typically associated with the risk averseapproach to decision making . So, they do not really want to take risk that could disturbtheir current state of happiness for example, Mustang ski in 2007 he carried out a diarystudy on men who were having sex with other men and you kind of you know we are tryingto see the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors.They found that the HIV risk believer was much less among the men who experience highlevels of positive effects.So, they were actually taking care that they do not get the disease taking all the precautionsthat were supposed to be taken in order to avoid ending their happy state.So, that is that is interesting to look at is not it.Now, talking to talking about a different study Cahir and Thomas in 2010 they wantedto study decision making involving you know imaginary betting on horse races.So, they found that participants in a positive mood state made less risky beds, you madeless risky decisions than those participants who are in a neutral state or in a sad emotion.For example, why are people why are people in positive state not taking risk why arethey becoming more risk averse to resume that we are sad people are going out of their wayto take risk 78 percent of them kind of choosing job A the more riskier job why are.So, happy people not doing that what is the reason is you know the most likely reasonprobably is that someone whose happy is actually motivated to maintain the state of happinessthey would do anything to avoid being any less happier and that is probably what isyou know kind of summing up these people's behavior.So, but the thing is that you can you know somebody could argue that this is rather posthoc kind of in explanation and you see the result when you kind of saying that this ishappening because.Suppose it had been found at individuals in a positive mood are less risk averse; thenit will be plausibly argue that individuals in a positive mood believe themselves largelyimmune from danger they are so very confident, you know much like the angry people they areso very confident that they are inclined to take more risk with again there is not a realreally clear evidence weighing on either side of this you know balance.So, that is, but much research on mood and decision making has made use of the distinctionbetween analytic and deliberative processing and you know heuristic processing.So, the idea is they actually wanted to test how people in positive mood make their decisions. So, De Vries and colleagues they argued thatpeople who use their preferred processing strategy are more content with the decisionsthey make than those who are you know using a non preferred strategy.So, they did this study participants were put into a happy mood by watching them byshowing them a video clip from the movie The Muppet show, from the serial the Muppet show,whereas others were put into a sad mode by showing them a clip from Schindler's List. The findings that is and that De Vries andcolleagues obtained supported their hypothesis happy participants would more satisfied havingmade you know the heuristic intuitive judgments and the findings were sad people were preciselythough opposite they were happier if they were kind of you know making use of the analyticand deliberative process of making decisions.So, people are generally you know more content with the decisions when there is a fit betweentheir mood and the strategy they are you know they are employing .So, let me summarize this for you we have talked about 4 kinds of emotions anxiety,sadness, anger and positive mood and there are 3 kind of aspects we have talked aboutwhat kind of judgment these people would make?What is the attitude towards risk?And what are the processing styles they are following?So, you can see here anxious people pessimistic judgment risk averse inefficient heuristicbased processing.Sad people pessimistic judgments risk taking behavior because they want to come out ofit at any cost, but they follow analytic and deliberative processing.Angry people are generally optimistic they are risk taking and they kind of follow theheuristic kind of approach heuristic approach to processing.Now positive mood people are they are they optimistic are they happier, what is the casethe generally optimistic, they are also risk averse and they are also using heuristic methodsof you know making decisions . So, this is from my side about emotional statesmood states and decision making we will talk to you above in the next class about differenttopic at again in cognition and emotion.Thank you.