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Introduction to Cognition and Emotion

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Introduction to Cognition and Emotion

Hello and welcome, now and in this week I will try and talk about one of the very important aspects of cognitionwhich is also recognize as a very important aspect which kind of affects the operationof so many of these higher cognitive processes if you might call them.So, to this week I will talk about cognition and emotion we will have 5 lectures talkingabout various aspects of the interaction between cognition which is the general things likeattention thinking problem solving those kind of things memory and also how emotional orsay for example, mood states interact with them and what are their mutual effects oneach other . So, let us begin this week and I will tryand talk to you about I will try to draw your attention to the kind of work we have discussedstill now.So, if you have paid attention if you have been following the lectures you would havenoticed that most of this research that we are talking about most of this research onwhich a lot of cognitive psychology theory is based has basically been conducted in ourlaboratories.It has followed the experimental technique which suppose with the in which the attemptis to control all possible sources of variation other than the independent variable otherthan the major variable that you are interested in manipulating.Now what they are does to this entire setting is that we kind of sometimes end up creatinga scenario which is not really like how this you know activity or how this cognitive processwould occur in the real life settings.You know in the real life settings there are not so many controls in the real life settingsyou cannot you do not cordon of so many of the other variables that might you know playa part . So, this is one of the things that has beenfelt throughout and that is one of the things because a lot of cognitive psychology researchor actually most of cognitive psychology research has been done in psychology laboratories,you know laboratories are a small rooms where say for example, computer system is kept thereyou can do your behavioural tasks there and then you can you know very the kind of methodyou will use to look at the data say for example you will go for eye tracking eg or fmri orwherever.Now this basically has led to a degree of scepticism in you know people within the disciplineas well outside the discipline as well who basically questioned about the ecologicalvalidity of that kind of findings that we are coming up with .And just for people who have who let us say just as a revision talk a little bit aboutecological validity as well.Now, by ecological validity what I am actually talking about this is the fact that, whateverresults you have got and you know whichever process you follow to collect that data whicheverprocess you follow to really come up with those kind of findings the experimental designsthe participants etcetera, how easy it is or how probable, how possible it is to beable to generalize from your experiment to the real life settings how say for example,how easy or difficult it is say for example, if I am conducting an experiment here in IITKanpur on a bunch of you know 20, 30 undergraduate students how from that data I will be ableto tell you about you know all people that are there in Kanpur or maybe all people thatare there in India or basically you know the kind of variables we talk about in cognitivepsychology.The assumption is that even if I am doing this experiment here in Kanpur with this bunchof students that I have sampled because of this cognitive because I am talking aboutthis cognitive variables technically I should be able to talk about the whole of humanityusing just that kind of sample.This is one of the problems this is this is basically termed as ecological validity thegeneralizability of your data you know how well your data will kind of extrapolate tolarger groups . So, the factors that I have been mentioninghave been you know underlined have been thought to be in some ways impediments in this grossgeneralizability of the experiments.Now; obviously, ecological validity and there is; obviously, a cost to pay here if you wantto really again get into the you know really ecologically valid things collecting datain less controlled situations, collecting data on a large number of people those thingsdo have their own you know logistic problems and those things do have their own problemsin terms of methodology as well, you know if you do not control so, many variables youare not going to be sure of what kind of effects you know you are getting.So; obviously, there is a trade off and interestingly there is an acknowledgement of the fact andthere is concerned effort in the field of cognitive psychology, nowadays that a lotof people are trying to take their experiments as they are on larger groups, a lot of peopleare trying to say for example, if your task is a very simple let us say a lexical decisiontask where you have to just look at a word and say whether it is a word meaningful wordor not a word, I have seen and I am I have been coming across studies where they havekind of pushing these tasks to things like you know your mobile phones or what we havepdas and stuff like that and a lot of people are doing I came across the study in sometime back where they collected data on 300, 1000 participants.So, there is that kind of effort I will come back to this discussion on cognition and emotion.one of the important aspects of the kind of experiments that are done in cognitive psychologyand one of working assumptions is that all of these people who are coming to our labs,all of these people who are you know participating.And in our experiments and giving us data are all in a sort of a neutral state of mind. So, you assume and sometimes you take that effort to relax a person to make them relax,make them sit well, you know ask for a glass of water and stuff like that make them relax.So, they are in a neutral state of mood you know they are in good place to be able todo that experiment sit on that computer for you know whatever will amount of time.Now this aspect that we sometimes try and ensure in this aspect that you assume thatyour participants are in such a state of mind before they are doing these experiments, kindof create a contrast between how they would do these decisions in real lives because inthe real life you come across you take so many of these you know decisions you solveso, many of these problems.In a states of mind which are not neutral I mean sometimes you are very excited aboutmaking particular kinds of decisions, sometimes you might be really you know low, you havenot had a great day and you are still making a particular decision .So, if cognitive psychology has to talk about all of these things cognitive psychology hasto in some sense take account all of these multitude of emotions that somebody goes throughbefore they are engaging in these things say for example, whether it is attention or whenwhether you are talking about recall of material under memory experiments or whether you aretalking about thinking and decision making and problem solving.This is basically one of the things that cognitive psychologists are really looking at you knowin real life setting say for example, most it is a known fact it is an accepted factthat most people perform various cognitive functions under the influence of differentkinds of emotions.So, if you are coming out with a study which is largely based on people who have performedit in a very neutral state of mind you will wonder and you know the question also comesthat whether these conditions where wherein you have done your experiment we will actuallyextrapolate to people actually making those decisions out in the field .So, this is where you know the cognition and emotion interaction comes in and what hashappened is that psychologists are trying to really even mimic those situations in theirlab.So, obviously, there are you know there are methodological considerations that you cannottake a lot of your experiments out of the lab directly and; obviously, there are effortsat designing experiments which can be, but for the time being what psychologists havebeen trying to do is they have been trying to mimic.Such kind of emotional situations you know positive moods negative moods excited moodssurprised moods in their labs and maintaining those moods manipulating those moods of theparticipant and then asking them to engage with their externality task.So, the idea is that if you want to really check the effects of mood affects of emotionalstates on memory.One of the things you might do is you might manipulate the mood of the participants whenthey come to you might a expose them to positive stimuli you might exposed them to negativegruesome stimuli you might irritate them by using particular kinds of waste and you getthem in their state of mind before they are actually doing your task and those thingshave been for a long time and people have been trying to study these things.An example is a Pecher in colleagues they did this study in 2009 and they would actuallytrying to investigate how drivers mental states are.So, what they did was they basically found that you know when drivers are listening tosad music or neutral kind of music you know something that is low in arousal or something,what they are doing is, the they report that it is easier to follow lanes, it is easierto stay in the lane, easier to drive at a constant speed when drivers are you listeningto either sad music or a neutral music.On the other hand if these drivers were listening to positive happy music chirpy music theyactually found it a little bit distracting to you know follow their lanes to stick totheir tasks because apparently that that emotional nature of the song is doing something to themit is probably interacting with their concentration it is interacting with their you know executiveprocesses and so on and so forth.So, this is some of the this is one of the things that people have this these kind ofexperiments people have been doing and trying to find out what happens with the when youdo when you induce such kind of mood states . So, let us talk a little bit about how whatare the techniques what are the methods using which people are manipulating mood states. So, researchers have constantly tried to manipulateparticipants mood states to affect the to measure there is f their effect on cognition.So, one of the useful methods includes basically asking people to write about or describe personalevents that had created intense emotions at some point in time .So, Young and colleagues in 2011 rather recently they use this technique to create angry orsad mood states they asked participants you know to write about things that made thathave made them angry in the past or write about things that have made them sad in thepast and the idea is when the participant is actually writing a description or suchkind of events the participant actually you know going through almost going through thosekind of situations again and such mood is already induced and then you can actuallyyou know make them do particular kinds of tasks and you know that the effects of thesetasks are very closely related to the mood state that you have been used.Slightly differently and Griskevicius basically in 2009 he told participants to write abouta situation when another person had really taken care of you and if made you feel betterand so on and so forth.So, this is basically this kind of a descriptions basically served to induce the feelings ofattachment induce the feeling of love among their participants there you know the positivegiving kind of a state.Another method that could be uses to for example, use music to manipulate states I mean I talkedabout in a Pacher and colleagues study of 2009 where they were actually you know exposingdrivers truck drivers to different kinds of musics and that is also is being found tobe a reliable way of manipulating a participants moods.So, a participants comes to a lab you ask them to kind of wear headphones and then youkind of play a music whatever your choice be and whatever the theory says that you knowthis kind of music induces this kind of mood this kind of music induces this kind of mood.And according to whatever your theoretical considerations might be you expose the participantto that kind of music for a given duration and then after that you kind of ask them toyou know perform your task and your assumption is that whatever results you are going toget are basically very closely linked to the mood state that you have induced.This is one of the methods very you know well known or say for example, well used method.Another method we can talk about is Veltens method Velten in 1968 you basically askedparticipants to read emotional sentences that are intended to produce progressively moreintense positive or negative feelings . So, other than in the production part which Italked recently you know young and colleagues method, Veltens method basically involvesparticipants actually reading passages and reading sentences that are highly emotionaland that reading them will basically is that kind emotion.So, this is also another methods you can write small passages and those passages could containyou kind of you know get people to agree on that 6 people 10 people agree that this particularsentence here are this 2 3 4 lines here induce a positive state.So, that is done for positive state these 4 5 lines induce a negative state and thenwhen the participant comes you ask them to read depending on whatever condition of experimentsyou want to induce, ask them to read these sentences and then go to your task and yourtask could be completely unrelated.It could be basically a visual search task in perception or a memory recall task or sayfor example, decision making or a problem solving task and because you have induceda negative or a positive or a sad or any type of mood.The kind of decisions they are going to make or the kind of you know search performanceor memory performance that they are going to give will be closely related to the moodstate that you have induced.Now I have talked about these methods let me kind of shifts to one of the very importantaspect uh basic aspect in mood studies.So, there is a lot of effect there is a lot of crosstalk between how different kinds ofemotional states and I am talking about moods more important more precisely I think theentire being we will probably be talking about moods more.Because moods are let me just define them for you moods are transient emotional statesthat participants or people in general keep going through you know, during a course ofa day there will be time that you will feel very happy choppy and you know a motivatea say for example, early in earning and you know you would plan so, many things I am goingto do this that and this is my plan of the day and there are other scenario say for example,you could feel very sad about in the same day you know evening something happened andyou kind of or sad.So, these are transient emotional states that people go through throughout the cycle ofthe day.And they do not really last long, but the point is that by the you know for the durationthey are there they can actually influence the way you are behaving say for example,if you are in such a bad mood something as bad is happened you just come out of homeor come out of school and then you meet somebody a friend or you know a person that you mightknow of and this person waves and say hello and you say in such a bad mood you do noteven reply and you go ahead and this person is going to think maybe this guy does notlike me, but it is just because your mood is not really correct at that point and time.So, moods are these kind of stage and the cognitive psychology research or researchlooking into emotion has made use of this transient emotional state to able to be ableto measure how these different emotional states might you know influence people is cognitivefunctioning.So, let us try and come back to this I will talk to you a little bit about the effector the interaction between mood and attention .So, one of the first systematic accounts one of the first systematic attempts to understandthis interaction between emotion and attention and performance was given by Easterbrook wayback in 1959.So, he gave a particular hypothesis which is better known as Easterbrook's hypothesisnowadays and Easterbrook's hypothesis proposes that the range of environmental cues you knowthat get attention the kind of information that you are picking up from the environmentreduces as the arousal or anxiety keeps on increasing and this basically leads to whatis referred to as you might have heard this term a lot of times.Tunnel vision if you are very highly aroused you know a very focused or say for example,if you are very angry sometimes you know you might not be able to you know attend to somany other cues in the environment you are very happy in that excitement you miss onso many things if you are very sad you are not really interested in.So, these kind of things when you are generally talking about anxiety we generally talkingabout high arousal this is what you know it takes you to it takes you to what is referredto as tunnel vision you are kind of focusing only on things that are relevant to you thatare relevant for your purpose and kind of try and miss you know where sometimes to decidedlysometimes unknowingly miss out on a lot of other things.So, a lot of research has supported this idea there is a lot of research evidence you mightlook up I will talk to you about some of the researches today is well that anxiety whenyou are very anxious in your kind of you know.Say for example, waiting for something and you know searching for something and thosekind of things leads to what is referred to as the narrowing or attention if you are highlyanxious you will going to be able to look at particular details, but you might missout on a lot of other relevant details.So, according to Gable and Harmon Jones and they did the study in 2010 anxiety is a negativeemotional state, high in motivational in intensity because if you are anxious about somethingyou know sometimes you waiting for someone and at a railway platform and there are somany people, there is a lot of crowd over there and because you are anxiously just waitingfor this one person there might be 2 3 4 others that kind of pass that you might already knowbut you just did not pay attention to that.You know things like you are and so, many things that are happening because you arejust in that heightened state of a arousal heightened state of motivational intensitythat you kind of leave out all the peripheral information that is not directly relevantto what you looking for.So, individuals become anxious in different kinds of situations in threatening situationsand so they are motivated to attend and respond to the source of thread I am just taking anexample from the various other possibilities.So, that is one of the things if you highly a feeling threatened and what the idea willbe that you are most motivated to respond to the source of threat and nothing else,let us talk a little bit about how attention might impact your memory performance or howthis interaction between emotion and tension and memory it will be goes up placed out.So, Levine and Edelstein in 2009 in they actually argue for a slightly modified version of Easterbrookhypothesis and they say that you know if you kind of modify this one a little bit it couldaccount for many of the effects that people report on anxiety or stress on long term memoryand they basically say that you know a emotion enhances or memory for information centralto our goals.If you are happy or if you are sad and if there is something like that emotion willthis emotional state will you know enhance your memory for the information that is relevantat that point and time, but it impairs it for peripheral or unimportant from supposeyou will angry at somebody, you know suppose you very angry at somebody and whatever informationabout that person is being given only that is what you are attending all the other thingsonly information that kind of is going to reinforce your anger is being attended everythingelse is kind of being left out these are these are the examples that are possible.Cavenett and Nixon in 2006 they try to study the effects of memory on anxiety by you knowhaving skydivers, you know skydiving is an activity that can be potentially you knowvery anxiety provoking.So, what they did was they actually wanted to check the effects of anxiety and memory. So, what they did was they asked skydivers to learn a list of words while on the planejust before they were about to dive.So, you know at the height of 8000 feet your kind of all geared up you with your parachuteand everything else and at this point and time these people are asking you to remembera list of words so, this is one.And the second was the second condition in the control condition they asked these skydiversto learn the same list of words or a different comparable list of words on the ground.So, when tested on the ground the total number of words recalled here was rather similarin both the conditions, but the balance of what was recalled actually differed a lot.So, the skydivers who had learned the words under stressful conditions you know just beforethey were about to jump of the plane and they might have been making so, many calculationsthey might have been afraid or anxious about the jump.They recognized words mostly you know relevant to skydiving the number of words that theyrecognize the number of words that they recalled which were irrelevant to skydiving was muchfew I mean it was much very less as compared to when they were learning these words whilethey were on the ground.So, these findings suggest that anxiety does increase the focus on relevant stimuli atthe expense of non relevant ones if you are anxious you will most and this can actuallybe a vicious cycle of sorts because you are kind of attending to things only that arereinforcing your emotional state in some sense.You can talk about another study by Loftus and colleagues (Refer Time: 23:04) study foundthat the memory for details was rather poor when eyewitnesses watched a person pointinga gun at a cashier while receiving some money . So, if you are there looking at you knowand there is the you know somebody who is trying to loot the bank and they are pointinga gun at the cashier in receiving some money a lot of details they would miss the participantswould not remember a lot of details memory for the details of the same scene was muchbetter in the unemotional situation when just when you know when this person is just givingout a cheque and waiting patiently for the cashier to count and get the money back.So, Loftus and colleague they use a very interesting term they use the term weapons focus to referto the way in which the weapon attracts the attention because weapon is seen as a sourceof threat.So, if you detect a weapon somewhere having your kind of insight in yourself primed tokeep attending and keep looking at the weapon because you know there is this perceptionof possible threat and stuff like that so, this is basically what is something that youknow it will kind of ask you to filter out a lot of other peripheral things that youmight not really be interested in at that point and time.Now moving on Talarico and colleagues in 2009 they asked participants to recall 8 emotionalautobiographical memories.So, for events 4 positive events that had that have made you feel happy or calm or inlove or positively surprised and 4 negative emotions say for example, when you are negativelysurprised or you are angry or you are sad or you are afraid of something.So, 4 different emotions they were basically us and they found was that there was a verypoor memory for peripheral details with memories for negative emotions as compared to positiveemotions when they were talking about positive memories they could provide a lot of detailsas well, but when they were talking about negative memories they would probably talkonly about those negative things that happen only things that were triggering negativethoughts, but not so many of the other details about these memories.So sad memories; however, were linked with a reasonably good recall of peripherals indetails confirming the earlier findings of Gale and Harmon Jones.So, it is I mean; obviously, sadness is also a negative emotion, but compared to some otherkinds of you know negative emotions evoked here negative surprise anger and fear sadnessactually led to better recall of these peripheral details . So, that is one difference you canmake that you know among the negative emotions this is one that still kind of maintains yourrecall of negative mood of peripheral details.Now learning and memory are directly affected by mood as well and there could be 2 approachesthat you can take you know you and trying to understand this interaction.The first is that researchers can manipulate a participant's mood state at the learningtime or at the retrieval time and the second is that researchers can consider the effectson memory of intentionally emotion emotional events that are happened at the you know inthe world at large or in the individuals you know personal life.So, what kind of highly emotion provoking events have happened and how they have kindof affected your memory that is one and the second is you can; obviously, you know takean individual it may manipulate the mood state and see how you know the memory of a particularthings will be.So, we will talk about mood manipulations first we will talk about the first case first,now most people will find themselves recalling far more negative or then pleasant memoriesif you look back in time and if you see or last 10 years what happened it is highly probablethat you will probably remembered more vividly than negative details, I mean the negativeevents that would have happened as compared to the positive event now when and this isbasically something which is like say for example, if you are in a happy state, youwill kind of look back and just think of happy memories, when you are in a negative statein your sad or angry or you have just had a fight with somebody you would look backand you will actually find those kind of memories coming back .So, depending upon whatever emotional state you are those kind of information is whatyou will activate now this phenomena is referred to as the mood congruent memory the kind ofmood you are in the kind of memories you will easily activate I mean this is basically theyou know the equation.So, Miranda and Kihlstrom in 2005 they asked adult participants to recall autobiographicalmemories from childhood and adulthood when presented with pleasant unpleasant and neutralcues and they actually founds that you know they tried to induce this the using a happysad or a neutral mood as well and what they actually found was they did find evidenceof mood congruent.They did find evidence of mood - congruity, the retrieval of sad memories was facilitatedby a sad mood or sad music and that of happy memories was enhanced by happy mood or happymusic.In a different study Holland and Kensinger they reviewed the literature about this moodand autobiographical memory interactions and they basically looked at a lot of studiesand they concluded that there is a reliable mood - congruent memory effect for positiveemotions while the kind of results the level of confidence on the results is slightly lesserwhen you are talking about negative mood and then mood congruent memory with respect negativestates.So, why should mood congruent memory you know be elusive with negative memory?I mean somebody can ask that is the, what is happening with the mood congruent memory,here why are negative states not really producing reliant reliable results . So, negative moodstates one of the reasons could be that negative mood states are unpleasant and so, individualsin such a mood state are motivated to change the mood to a more positive one they are internallymotivated to change this and they are constantly trying to change this mood state and whatis happening is because of this tussle going on inside the individual.The mood state is not really I mean the negative memory is a do not remain as accessible andthat is one of the reasons why you will see there the relationship between negative moodstates and negative memory being activated is not really as strong as compared to positivemood states because you are trying to maintain the positive mood state while you are tryingto kind of come out of the negative mood state is you know.So, the correspondence between negative mood and negative memory is not so high as comparedto the correspondence between positive mood state and positive memories activation.Rusting and De - Hart you know in 2000 they conducted the study where participants wrotesentences about negative positive and neutral words.So, they were given this list of words, some of them were negative words, some of themwere positive words, some of them were neutral words and they were given these you know theywere asked to write make sentences, out of this and after that participants were put