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Creativity in Problem Solving

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Creativity in Problem Solving

Hello and welcome, Creativity now, what is creativity?You know we will talk about definitions at some point, but you can just pause and look around ah who are the people that you consider ah as creative you know inventors, authors,actors, poets so on and so forth.You know people who have ah some qualities that are you know identifyingly identifiablyvery different from ah all the other people around them.What are these qualities?What are the salient features of people who are considered creative if you observe them?If you observe how they you know go about things, go about doing things, how they think,how they approach ah problems, how they solve ah particular problems are in some sense differentah from how ordinary people solve problems.Also what are these people doing that others are not?Why are these people very successful why are their solutions more impactful why are theirsolutions quicker considered more in generous and the solutions that come through ordinarythinking that come through ah you know thinking of normal common individuals.So, some of these questions you can ask yourself I will very briefly touch or a very brieflykind of circle around these questions and let us we will talk about how creativity ahis a very important cognitive activity . Now, to come of there to talk about definitionsthere is almost no standardized definition of creativity and the theoretical approachestaken to study it are a very diverse you know.There there is ah almost no agreement on what creativity actually is and there is almostno agreement on what is the best approach to study creativity different people havede defined creativity in different ways different people adopt different paradigms to measureand assess creativity and this is how the field is structured you know and ah even thoughthis is there is so much of controversy even though there is so much of ah agreement disagreementah you know discussion and debate about what is creative what is not, who is creative whois not, ah what is what does it constitute being creative ah the topic is very popularthere are multiple books written there multiple papers published ah on the topic of creativityeven in the decade of 2000 a lot of books ah were published on creativity.Now, just kind of ah observing and examining this topic many theorists have proposed thatnovelty is very important or almost a necessary component of creativity.So, a creative person ah should come up with solutions that are novel and that you knowhave not been offered before, that is one way of looking at it.Other than the fact that the solution is novel ah you know a creative solution must be usefulas well it must be appropriate as well as reading through ah one of these books anda very interesting example is that you know if the question is, how would you roast apig?Charles (Refer Time: 03:33) in ah you know in nineteenth century observes that you knowone of the ways to roast a pig would be to you know put the pig in the house and burndown the house, that is also a way to roast the pig, but is it a useful solution is itan appropriate solution?So, even novel solutions should be qualified with other criteria's like these and onlythen you can actually you know definitively say that this is a ah creative solution.Also there is disagreement amongst a psychologist about the characteristics of ah you know creativethinking for example, whether it ah arises out of ordinary thinking methodical step bystep kind of thinking that we have been seeing in you know the past ah couple of weeks orit involves some kind of extraordinary way of thinking of solutions extraordinary wayof concocting solutions out of thin air.How do creative people think, what are their ways of what are their methods of ah churningof solutions?So, there is there is a lot of debate there as well I just briefly touch upon two approachesone of the approaches was put forward by Guilford back in the 1960's and Guilford proposed thatcreativity should be measured in terms of divergent production.How many different solutions how many different responses can one give to each test item.So, it has been proposed that creativity requires divergent thinking rather than coming up withjust one single best answer.You should be able to flexibly think of so many different kinds of responses to whatevertest item whatever you know question is posed in front of you.It makes a little bit of a sense you know it is not completely ah a bad idea.It is obviously, say for example, if somebody is intelligent if somebody is witty enoughthey can actually come up with a variety of responses to the same question and that iscertainly you know ah can be considered creative.But, say ah for example, let us take an example ah one of the tests that Guilford used ahhe basically gave these participants tests and he somebody who scores high on these kindof tests must have been you know must need to explore ah the solutions in a creativefashion and they will get a high score on this test and they will can be consideredmore creative So, the demonstration is like you know divergentproduction test would be something like this ah many words ah begin with an L and N inone minute list as many words as possible ah that have the form L ah beginning and endN till the end the words can have any number of letters between L and N.So, you can you know you have to come up with so many words as many words as possible injust one minute.Then the other problem is suppose that ah people reach their final height at the ageof 2.So, the normal adult height would be less than 3 feet.In 1 minute lists as many consequences as possible that would result from this change,how much can you think, how divergent you can think this will happen this will happenthis will happen and you can have to give ah you know in just 1 minute, how many differenteh things that are possible.Below ah another problem could be below is a list of names.So, ah Sally, Maya, Harold and Beth and what you have to do is you have to say a Beth ahGail and Juan and what you have to do is you have to arrange these names in as many ordersas possible in as many ways as possible in just one minute.One of the ways could be you know you could just use a number of syllables, you coulduse number of letters, you could use male names female name, so many things you cando.The fourth problem is that there are four shapes here and in one minute you have tocombine them to make each of the following objects a face, a lamp, a piece of playgroundequipment and a tree.Each shape may be used once many times or not at all in forming each object and it maybe expanded or shrunk to any size, each shape may also be wrote.So, there is a lot of freedom there and you have to just use these four shapes to makeup whatever requirements have been placed before you now depending upon what kind ofresponses people come up with and depending upon different people coming up with differentranges of responses one can actually you know give them a score on divergent thinking.You know somebody can come up with five hundred solutions to ah one of these problems in oneminute and the other person can just come up with two hundred solutions then you would,obviously, assume that the person coming up with five hundred solutions is more creative.Research on tests of divergent thinking have found moderate correlation between peoplestest scores and other judgment of creativity.So, it has been in some sense in in a moderate sense shown that people who achieve higherscore on these tests of divergent production are considered creative by other tests aswell.However, the number of different ideas may not be the best measures of creativity andthat is basically been repeated in a lot of other studies as well because this measuredoes not really accesses and it does not really give you the idea about whether the numberof ideas that you are generating are all novel or appropriate or useful.So, they are how effective those ideas are is not really just measured by number of ideas.So, there would be other tests of creativity as well.Let us talk about a different theory of creativity investment theory of creativity.Now, Sternberg and colleagues proposed that creative people who deal in the world of ideasalso they they behave a little bit like investors you know when ah nobody is buying this stockbuy a lot of it and when everybody is interested in that just sell it off and move to somethingelse.So, creative people according to Sternberg and colleagues produce a creative idea whenno one else is interested in the investment.As soon as a lot of people start getting interested in the same ideas they leave that and theymove to newer pastures.So, according to Sternberg and Lubart's investment theory of creativity the essential attributesof creative are six; they are intelligence knowledge motivation and encouraging environmentand appropriate thinking style and also an appropriate personality.To work creatively you must possess all six of these things if you are missing on anyof any one of our any two of these ah different attributes you will not be considered creative.So, if Sternberg and Lubart design a test it would measure all six of these things anda combination of scores of all all six of these attributes would give you a certificateof creativity or not.Now this is also a ah interesting approach to look at creativity.One of the other factors that people have looked at with respect to creativity is thekind of motivation towards doing a task.So, you know and this motivation can be looked at in two ways an important component of creativityah seems to be intrinsic motivation you know how passionate towards the task you are yourselfhow involved or engaged in the task you are just for the sake of the task.So, intrinsic motivation is basically the motivation to work on a task for its own ahsake because you find it interesting, you want to spend time with that task and becauseit is interesting to you you will think of various ways you will think of different newnovel, innovative useful ways to actually ach[ieve] complete that task.The task has to be exciting for you it has to be personally challenging for you and itshould hold your interest for longer times, that is what intrinsic motivation is.Now, intrinsic motivation can be contrasted with extrinsic motivation.What is extrinsic motivation?Extrinsic motivation is when you are not really interested in doing that task it does notreally appeal to you so much, but you are doing the task because ah completing thattask ah promises you certain reward or a certain you know raise or something like that.Now, a lot of research has been done to compare the two kinds of motivation and kind of ahyou know look into creative and non creative people and how these different motivationsvary among these people.So, research has demonstrated that people are more likely to be creative when they areworking on a task that they are truly interested in that, they truly enjoy.In one of the studies Runco and colleagues they administered a standardized test of intrinsicmotivation to college students.So, they made administered a test when they come up with scores of intrinsic motivation.The tests asked participants then to rate their level of interest in three kinds ofactivities; writing, art and problem solving.Several weeks later the students are again brought to the lab laboratory and when theyare and they are asked to perform tasks in these three areas and these their performancein these tasks are now judged by trained judges, who will judge these ah in their performanceon whether these performances are creative or not creative.The results showed that the students with high intrinsic motivation scores on the testsuppose in high intrinsic motivation in art or high intrinsic motivation and in writingor high intrinsic motivation in problem solving were more likely to produce a creative project.So, they directly kind of correlated how intrinsically motivated you are and how creative your solutionsare going to be . Many studies have also shown that studentstend to produce less creative projects if they are working on these projects for externalreasons.If you are just working for a high grade if you are just working for getting a good salary,if you are just working for you know.So, that people may think good of you then probably you are not really putting yourselfin that task as much as you need to do you might not excel in the task you might notbe able to be creative with that task.So, when people view a task ah as just being a means of earning a reward or a good gradeor a positive evaluation their extrinsic motivation is higher and that kind of lowers down theintrinsic motivation.Consequently, as a result of this trade off the creativity is also likely to decrease.So, in a representative study what they did was they asked the college students to writebasically write ah creative poems and these ah people were told that they their poemswill be ah judged by a group of professional poets.So, because they are kind of you know the motivation is the intrinsic motivation isnot there ah they are basically told that you know these professional poets will judgeyou and we might give you a reward if it was just highly creative or so on and so forthand it was found that the college students wrote less creative poems when they were toldthat their poems are going to be judged than otherwise.Other research in the similar area also confirms these findings the effects usually hold forboth adults and children and for both artistic creativity and verbal creativity.So, motivation is a very important factor in whether you are going to be creative witha particular project or whether you whether you are going to be able to creative in particulartasks or not.So, in general you can assume that extrinsic motivation reduces your creativity when itis controlling the limit and limiting your options.Is something very important to actually consider for both educators and employers as well andalso as well as students and workers it is a very good idea to choose to work in an areathat you intrinsically enjoy that you intrinsically look forward to you know it is it is a goodidea doing a job that you enjoy rather than doing doing a high paying job which you reallyyou know do not enjoy at all.So, that is probably ah all from me.From creativity it was just a small ah introduction into what creativity is about and that kindof ends the sixth week ah we will ah see you in the seventh week with a different topic.Thank you .