Loading

Module 1: Travel Demand Management

Notes
Study Reminders
Support
Text Version

Transit-Oriented Development

Set your study reminders

We will email you at these times to remind you to study.
  • Monday

    -

    7am

    +

    Tuesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Wednesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Thursday

    -

    7am

    +

    Friday

    -

    7am

    +

    Saturday

    -

    7am

    +

    Sunday

    -

    7am

    +

In this class, we are going to introduce you to another such topic, which is called the transit oriented development or Tod. Uh, which is one form of, uh, uh, strategy or development that allows you to incorporate various DDM measures into one single, um, measure. So in today's class, what we are going to tell you is we are going to introduce this topic of DOD or transitory in development, uh, show you the different skills. Uh, of which a Tod can be designed and also, uh, familiarize you with the guiding principles of DOD. So transit oriented development. What is it? Uh, I mean, this is a term that is, uh, being, uh, used a lot in, uh, Uh, other countries, other developing countries as well. Uh, but it has recently gained, uh, some importance and traction in India as well. Uh, we do have a national DOD policy in place. Uh, and, uh, uh, so many of the developments, uh, especially around the, uh, massive rapid transit corridors is being planned to be designed in this fashion. So what is a D or D now DOD is a classic example. Well, of how, uh, transportation and land use should be integrated. How it should be integrated. That is one aspect of DOD. The other aspect of DOD, when you purely look at it from the point of view of transportation, is that it encourages the use of sustainable transportation modes and it integrates them also in a good fashion. So the two main things, if you have to remember about DOD is, uh, the integration or the interaction between land use and transportation, and then furthermore, in the transportation side, Uh, it is the integration of different sustainable transportation modes. Uh, if you also want the third aspect, which is more related to land use itself, uh, we are looking at, uh, uh, in DRDs, uh, we look at, uh, land uses that are mixed in nature that are dense, uh, that are compact, uh, in nature as well. So that is the land use side of it. Then you have the transportation side of it, and then you have the, the connection between the land use and transportation. So, uh, conceptually, when it was first developed, it was developed in this fashion, uh, which is, uh, if you have a major arterial on which your mass transport line or your mass transit line, uh, runs, then, uh, a semicircle around it. Uh, it could be a full circle as well, but it is, uh, this, uh, the two circles, uh, the two semi-circles could be identical different in nature. Uh, but whatever is the case, uh, it is developed in this fashion. So, uh, maximum radius, uh, from the, uh, transit station. So if this is the arterial road and your transit station is right here, so you want to, uh, develop it, uh, in such a fashion that. There are multiple land uses. So different languages are shown in different colors and, uh, residential is in white. Uh, and also you have enough, uh, uh, green spaces around these and also, uh, what is not shown very well in that is that your, uh, different transportation lines are, are different transportation modes along different, uh, networks are well coordinated. So it's a compact land use. It's a mixed land use. And it integrates different types of, uh, sustainable transportation modes with it. Now this is a realistic, uh, sketch or a realistic example of how transport out is developed. Again, if you look at it from this way where this is your main transportation or mass transit line, and you have such kind of development, uh, along both sides of the line, Right. So it would be high dense, uh, highly dense high-rise buildings. First, then slowly tapering off to being, uh, more and more, uh, uh, spread out. Uh, whereas, uh, your transit line will be right at the center. So you can have it either in the semicircular fashion, you can have it on both sides. It could be either around just one node. It could be along the corridor as well. Along the corridor. A development is usually called a transit adjacent development rather than transit oriented development. Uh, but the principles are pretty much similar. So why, why was there a need to develop this kind of a scenario? Uh, so what was happening was. Because there was, uh, the, there is still a rapid growth in use of, uh, um, personalized vehicle and a decline in the, uh, um, ridership of public transport vehicle. What Arbonne, uh, transportation planners and planners started to think was how do we encourage people to use. Public transport. So that was their first, uh, Abe. Right? How do we attract people to public transportation? So the immediate thought was, uh, why don't we, uh, uh, encourage or attract people to stay closer to. The public transportation, not very far away from the main line, but closer to it now. Um, then they started to think, well, no point only thinking about being closer to the public transportation line, but let us think that they are closer to the public transportation stations, right? Because eventually public transportation has to be accessed. Through the stations. So although you are, you may be close to the line, but the station may be still, uh, 400, 500 meters away, but that doesn't help. So let us, then they started thinking, let us attract people to stay very close to the public transportation stations. Okay. So that, uh, translated into this concept of. Transit oriented development then came the thought that well, okay, now we are attracting people to stay near the public transportation stations, uh, where they can now take the Metro or the BRTs and go to their workplaces. But what about their other work, purpose or other trip purposes? For example, now they want to go to the grocery store. They want to go to a movie theater. They want to go to a restaurant. Do they still use their private modes? Uh, so in, in response to that question, what they then started thinking was let us not only develop this DOD as a residential zone, let us develop it as a mixed zone. So then came the mixed land use concept. So the mixed land use concept now said that, okay, everything is, uh, pretty close by to each other. So you don't have to use your. Uh, God, or to Wheeler all the time, you can now walk or bicycle or use some intermediate public transportation modes are bicycle sharing, so on and so forth. So that was the intent of, uh, mixing up the land uses. Then they thought, okay, it is good to encourage these people to use other forms of transportation. But we have to also provide good quality of them. So then what's our happening. It was, uh, they started to look at the infrastructure, the infrastructure of sustainable transportation modes around these nodes. So they made for parts pretty wide around there. They started introducing bicycle sharing, uh, around the stations. Uh, they started discouraging the use of, uh, public, uh, the use of, uh, uh, private transportation modes by increasing parking. So in yesterday's class, we looked at how. Parking at play a role in driving you out of your car, right? It can be used as a push measure. So what they started doing was this started increasing the parking prices in the Tod so that people would not now use that, uh, private modes more often, or for every purpose, they would not use their private mode. They would rather walk up. So these are all these guiding principles, uh, around, uh, offer public transportation, offer Tod node. Uh, and this is how, uh, evolution of DOD started to happen. Right. Uh, so now, if you were talking about a full fledged, uh, Tod, you have to have all of these components, uh, designed in such a fashion that, uh, compactness is encouraged. Uh, mixed land uses encouraged use of, uh, sustainable transportation modes is encouraged and use of private transportation modes is discouraged, uh, to a large extent. So these are how. This is how the chronology or the sequence of, uh, DRDs, uh, evolved. Then, uh, when we start individually looking at different components of a DOD, you would, I see that a walkability or walkable design is a very, very important part of it. And we have already told you how to design a good walkable streets. Uh, mass transit station is a prominent feature of that, uh, of that town center is known. Now, if you. If you think of a concept, really, if you start to think of this as the center of your town, our town is your Tod, right? Say it's a small, it's not a large town, but it's a small area, but now you can call it a, you can call this transit node as the town center. So if you think of that as the center, uh, then you can, uh, develop around it in a very, uh, planned fashion, uh, regional node containing of a mix of users. So land use mix. Uh, in, in close proximity. So now you started to see that there are office, residential, retail, everything close to that, uh, note that, uh, transit node, it has to be high density. Now high density is something that, uh, is mostly, uh, uh, something that is encouraged mostly in cities, uh, that are not, uh, very dense. Uh, usually cities worldwide are very dense, uh, but you would still find some Western cities that are sprawled. And, uh, they are, uh, I'm not seeing the benefits of public transportation, uh, are, uh, are not seeing the benefits of. Um, uh, integrating different modes of time petition. So what they do is then densify the areas around the transit nodes, densify, not a word, but I'm using it as a word. So carries the density of the, uh, land uses around it. Uh, Metro stations. Also, they do that by incasing far or FSI or however they use it. But in our cases, you could argue that, uh, Indian cities are already done. So how, how much more dense do you want to make it? Because, uh, we usually are, we are fed up with people living so close to each other. So maybe density is not one of our focuses, but definitely land use mix is one of our focus. Right? We have to have the proper mix. Uh, we often see our neighborhoods, uh, uh, being purely residential sometimes. Uh, sometimes they have residences on top and. Um, the ground floor is sometimes let out to retail stores, but they are not done in a very systematic fashion. Maybe the land use doesn't support it, but it is going on illegally or something like that. That what that, uh, ma uh, that, uh, uh, usually really tends to happen after that is that, um, uh, people, uh, the shops that open up are all off either similar nature, or they're not disorganized in a proper fashion. So if you have a proper land use mix, If you have, uh, uh, land use, uh, which says this is the, this is the mix of land use. If you have 20% residential, 30%, uh, retail, uh, 25% entertainment or so, whatever it is, and that is category that is categorized maybe as a land use mixed type II, whereas the little bit of different proportions of land use mixed type B. So if you actually have such land use mixes coordinate in your, uh, in your zoning or in New York, Uh, land use maps that would really help in designing the DOD properly. And we do need good land use mix so that we can encourage the use of sustainable transportation modes. And they have to be all within 10 minutes walking distance, right? Uh, as the distance increases, probability of walking goes down, people don't want to walk for longer distances. People don't want to bicycle for longer distances. So all of this design, everything has to be within a 10 to 15 minute walking radius. So that everybody is encouraged to, uh, go to different places, uh, by, uh, by Walker bicycle collector support transit systems, including IPT light rail buses should be provided. Uh, now there has to be a good, uh, if your Tod, now it is not just a small area around. Uh, the transit station. Now, if you think that there are multiple transit stations and then you have multiple such DRDs, which are now overlapping. So what happened, what tends to happen is, uh, only one mass transit line may not be sufficient for people to move from one note to the other. You should have some supportive IPT or some supportive, uh, bus networks that are feeding into these. Uh, uh, feeding into the main, uh, transit line. So our Tod also has to have a good network of such feeder services. Okay. Reduced and managed parking. Like we said, parking has to be, uh, discouraged by, uh, either having fewer parking spaces or by having higher price of parking or both, uh, so that it has to be done and specialized retail at service stations, commuting, uh, um, uh, serving commuters and locals, including cafes, grocery shopping mall. So again, Uh, when we are looking at mixed land users, you shouldn't be also looking at mixed sub land use categories also, right? Uh, so mixed land use may include, uh, 20% retail. But if the retail is of all one kind, it is of no help. So even within retail, it has to be of different types. Uh, so all that mix or variety has to be, you know, DOD, uh, benefits of DOD. viously the benefits of DOD are the benefits of. Uh, any, um, uh, sustainable transportation development, uh, it will provide you choices, uh, for more, uh, more use, uh, makes, uh, housing affordable. So now if you have a mixed land use, uh, and if you also have a mixed income category housing in there, uh, so what usually happens is, uh, public transportation was usually. Uh, captive mode for people with lower within lower income groups. Right? Uh, so now if you attract all those lower income group people, uh, or not all, maybe a proportion of those, uh, lower income people to be living around, uh, the Metro stations, uh, suddenly the entire, uh, DOD becomes very affordable right now. You have to have affordable retail, you have to have affordable, uh, rental units. So everything comes up. So not only has to be, uh, not only there has to be air. A mix of land uses are not only, it has to be dense. Uh, but also it has to be of mixed income groups. Otherwise, if you just have, uh, start providing, uh, these, uh, fancy, uh, high days, residential buildings with a glass facades, then they're going to increase the land value, but they're going to only attract one category of the society and not a mix of people. So that also has to be, uh, and short. This will ensure environmental sustainability, because now you're, uh, using, uh, your private modes less. It increases the safety of a pedestrian bicyclist because you're now designing those streets, keeping in mind these modes of transportation, rather than, uh, only designing streets with automobiles in mind, increase transit, ridership, and fair revenue. Obviously. Uh, because everything is now centered around the transit station. Uh, so ridership, uh, should increase, would increase. And also, uh, the fair revenue in cases increases. The other thing that may also a benefit, uh, the public transportation lines, uh, public transportation system, uh, by DOD is that, uh, not fair revenues, but now they can, uh, sell, uh, sell their land because the certain portion of the land around the stations now belong to the. Uh, um, I belong to the Metro authority or the BRTs or whatever it may be. And then it is open to, uh, the, the land is then, uh, uh, so, uh, first circle or the first, uh, uh, say a hundred meters of the land usually belongs to the Metro authority and then. Uh, afterwards, outside it belongs to the municipality or the corporation. So people, what they start doing is the Metro authorities or the transit authorities start doing is they start selling, uh, airlines. So vertically they start selling, uh, rights on top of their Metro station. So you will see that Metro station is at the bottom or the underground, and then you have parking on top of it, or you have. Well, uh, um, or you have, uh, office buildings on top of it. So what they start getting is rental revenue by, uh, selling, uh, airlines. So that's called air, right? Sometimes they even sell air rights on top of the Metro lines. So Metro is going on one level and you can sell rights. They're call it rights. They have different mechanisms to do that, but they, in some instances they have done that also. So this is additional fair or not fair, but additional revenues. Uh, these are non farebox revenues to the, uh, Metro line, so that also can be done. So the DOD also allows them to, uh, get revenues in that fashion reduction in VMT, because now you are, uh, not using your private vehicles much. So condition would go down and well connected land use and transportation network that we originally said that this is a prime example of how land use and transportation should be integrated. Uh, so now this could be a different scales. If you start looking at the scale of, uh, uh, DOD, we started looking at the scale of a Tod from the point of view of one node or one station right now, it could be one station or it could be for your entire city scale as well. Right? If you're looking at entire city scale, then you have developed, uh, uh, your city as a transit-oriented development. So your entire city development, land dues and trucks, uh, land use, and transportation are integrated around your. Transit nodes. So that could be at a city scale. This could be the only one corridor scale. So maybe you picked only one, one, there may be multiple corridors of mass transit line in your city, but you have found out that this one corridor is the most beneficial. If I convert this into a, uh, into multiple Tod zones and join them. So it becomes transit adjacent called a transit adjacent development and Tod mixed together, uh, for the entire corridor. We looked at, uh, station area. So, uh, just around one station, uh, node, you are developing it as DOD, or it can be a project area as well. Now, uh, the project area, uh, converted into a Tod is, is essentially a zone where people have choices of, uh, transport, but the mass transit corridor may not be available as well. So what happens is, uh, not many cities will have mass transit lines, right? But they want to encourage people to bicycle and walk. So the principles of DOD, which is improving, uh, which is, uh, mixed land use dense land use, um, uh, integration of sustainable transportation modes, all those principles minus the mass transport node as such. So it may not be a mass transport node. Now think of it as maybe you have your, um, just your, uh, suburban railway station. Or your, uh, intercity railway station. You don't have a good, uh, uh, Metro network or BRTs network in the city, but you have, uh, definitely every city or town in India has a station or a bus stop or a bus station. Right. So now think of it that as a node and just develop around it with those simple, uh, with those, uh, simple principles of DOD. So although it will not be around the mass transit node, but it is still. It can be thought of as that project area where, uh, the entire area now has these principles of DOD. So you can build it at any scale. You want it to build it as long as you are implementing those principles of DOD that we talked about now, uh, there is a guidance document that the ministry of urban development, uh, of India has developed. Now it's the ministry of, uh, housing and urban development. But at that time it was MOU D. So most of the points are taken from that document to make you familiar, to make you familiar with that document and so that you can use it in the future. Uh, this is based, uh, uh, uh, through, uh, uh, real life examples, uh, in Indian, uh, context, uh, that this document has been developed. So you can follow that. And, uh, if, uh, your city is planning for a Metro network or a BRTs network, then you can talk to your authorities and say that. Hey, if you're planning for a Metro network, then our nodes should be designed in a DOD fashion. So that, that, uh, that, uh, uh, recommendation should come from you as a transportation engineer or a transportation planner. So what this document, a guidance document says that there are 12 DOD guiding principles and nine, uh, DOD supportive principles, uh, based on which you should design your development around. Uh, at whatever scale you are thinking of developing it. So we look at each of these 12 guiding principles and I will leave it up to you to read about the supportive principles, which can be, you can pick and choose which supportive principle you want to use for your design. But when it comes to, uh, the, uh, guiding principles, you make sure that you have used all of them or at least the maximum of them. So the first principle is it has to have multimodal integration. We've already talked about it. So if this is your, uh, uh, station space, uh, uh, uh, uh, if this is your basically station entrance, and this is your, um, uh, a Metro line or a BRTs line, what you have to make sure is that, uh, there is enough space. Uh, around the Metro that allows you allows the integration of modes so that, uh, you are not only accessing the Metro station, using private transportation, you are using IPT or using bicycle. Maybe your local feeder bus is dropping it to you, or you are being dropped off and picked up by other, uh, your friends or family. So that is how it should be designed multiple modes. Uh, then if you're crossing. Uh, uh, the main, the main road, it has to have proper crossing principles and your other, uh, street network, existing street network should have good, uh, an empty network. Maybe it should have a park and right development, right. Park and ride lots on both sides where, uh, some people who would want to park and then use the Metro station can do that. But it has to be, see the park and ride lot is not. Not right here, but it is right here. Right? So it is a little bit farther away. So discouraging people to park right at the Metro station. So that is the indictment. So it has to have such multimodal integration around the nodes, the fast, first mile, and last mile connectivity, uh, should be that people are either bicycling or walking or in the, even in the last mile, they may be using some other modes of. Uh, sustainable transport such as cyclic HSA in our case. So it has to be encouraged that the first and the last mile of access to the main trip to the main line or the main public transport lane has to be some form of a sustainable track, rotational interconnect, the street network. The other thing that is encouraged in a Tod is to have multiple, uh, if the best option is to have a grid. Uh, type, uh, street network that minimizes, uh, travel time between minimizes walking time between two different nodes and courageous people to walk. Uh, uh, if you have grid network with smaller block sizes, then that is very, very helpful are at encourages people to, uh, walk a lot. So, uh, goals are two, you know, routes providing direct connections between transit stations and other areas. Uh, C so if you may have a vehicular network, which is yellow, Uh, at the periphery, right? The pedophilia may have the yellow, but inside you have to have a good pedestrian and bicycling network. Uh, so bicycle and pedestrian network should be well-integrated in the center and the pedophile. You can have a lot of maker movement, so it has to have interconnected streets. Uh, we have already given you an example of how to design complete streets. So all of the streets that are being designed should have space as if this is the entire right-of-way. It should have space for everything. It's not only have space for your Metro, but it should have space for walking, uh, maybe, uh, a service lane on both sides. So now you can pick into based on the width of the right-of-way that you have, maybe both sides, you don't have a service lane. One side you have. Uh, but bicycle lanes, uh, walking, uh, pedestrian sidewalks you have on both sides, maybe traffic lanes or something that you can, uh, you can avoid having, uh, uh, two lanes on each sides. Maybe you, uh, cut, uh, the width of the, uh, traffic lanes, uh, uh, you know, to encourage people to use. Uh, sustainable modes of transport. So that is complete streets. All modes get, uh, some space within the right-of-way. It's not only, uh, motorized vehicles that get the majority of the retrofit. It has to have good NMT network. And we have told you, uh, in the NMT segment, in the NMT module, how to design. Uh, good and empty, uh, network, uh, for example, uh, at property entrances, this is just an example of showing how property and princes should be designed. It should not be designed like this, where this is giving access only, uh, preference only to the motorized vehicle that are turning in and no preference. Is given to the pedestrians who now have to get down from the curb or the sidewalk, uh, wait for these vehicles to go and then cross this. So such type of design should be a wided. Whereas if you provide a ramp and when you provide a continuous part for the, uh, for the, uh, pedestrian to walk. Then that will allow, uh, integration of our integration of both. Now here he had, you are getting, uh, you're still giving preference to, uh, other, uh, preference to the motorized vehicle, but now you also have. A clear path for the pedestrian. So, uh, Preston's uh, an empty network is taken care of, uh, traffic coming. We just told you in the previous classes about how to, uh, how to provide, um, uh, traffic calming devices, where to install chicanes. Uh, if you have a straight roads, make them a little bit windy. So then, uh, traffic comes down, essentially traffic coming is nothing, but. Reducing the speed of motorized vehicles. Uh, if you have a, uh, um, or, uh, uh, garner radio, very sharp, uh, increase the radius of the, um, uh, gardeners are in increase the radius, a turning radius, add at your intersections that will slow down the vehicles that are trying to, uh, turn. So there are various traffic coming means that you have already led, and that should be implemented at DOD zones. Mixed land users. We already told you that mixing of land users, jobs and residents justifies higher service frequencies and promotes higher ridership levels. So now you feel, uh, your ma ma um, mass transit line, right? If it has to have continuous ridership throughout the day, then if your nodes have different types of land users, uh, for example, one node has a lot of, uh, hospitals. The other node has a lot of. Uh, offices, then what it'll ensure is that hospitals may have night shifts. So even the Metro line is working the night has enough ridership. Uh, whereas officers may be in the only, in the morning. So they have ridership in the morning and in the nights. So that is the entire, uh, uh, principle of having our need for having mixed land users so that, uh, it can justify service frequency and the hype or more tired ridership, uh, the, uh, for the transit line for the MRTS light. Uh, density again, we have to optimize, uh, density. So in our case, uh, we have to be very careful not to make already very dense areas, even more dense. So if you have a lot of density already, maybe we are only looking at. Improving the mix of land users rather than density. Uh, but, uh, there are different guidances given in this document as to how to, uh, improve, uh, density, uh, by giving more far or giving less parking or so on and so forth. Street oriented design street oriented buildings are something which says that you are building frontage, uh, should be facing the main street, uh, rather than, uh, you provide parking, uh, in front of the building. Uh, always it is said that you avoid parking the front of the building because that makes it more motorized, friendly design. Uh, whereas if you have a sidewalk in front of the building that encourages people to walk. Uh, and you can have parking behind the building, or you can have parking underneath the building and so on and so forth, but never have parking in front of the building that discourages people from walking. So that is something called, uh, street oriented buildings, managed parking we've already looked at, uh, reduced parking or increase the parking fee or, uh, both. Uh, this is something that is very true to, uh, uh, Indian situations where you have to. Uh, integrated the informal sector while you are looking to design, uh, your streets. So essentially there, you have to design for the street vendors. You have to provide them specific places where they can set up their stalls and dig. It should not be setting it up, haphazardly everywhere along the street. Uh, but at the same time, if you disallow them, then, uh, you will, uh, uh, cut that. Uh, you will cut the large portion of the informal economy that we have, which is not very desirable in our case. So integrate them well, uh, when you're developing your Tod plants, uh, give them proper places where they can also. Uh, put up their shops, uh, but at the same time, it does not impede the flow of pedestrians or bicyclists or motor vehicles. So that is very, very important. And finally, housing density, we have looked at that, uh, there should be a mixture of type styles, price ranges, uh, antennae are within a 10 minute walking distance of her transit station. So have different mixes of housing, not do not only have high-rise buildings like you saw, you can have highlights buildings right next to the Metro station, but then you can taper off. Uh, so there different types of, uh, tastes of different types of people are catered for, and then you will have a good mix of, uh, people that are living, uh, around, uh, in your DOD. And that will encourage that will make it more vibrant and, uh, uh, even helps in the economy of that DOD as well.