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Module 1: An Overview of Urban Transportation

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An Overview of Urban Transportation – Lesson Summary

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Urbanization and Transport
Urbanization is the transition from a rural to an urban society. Statistically, Urbanization reflects an increasing proportion of the population living in settlements defined as urban, primarily through net rural to urban migration.
Urbanization has been shaped by transport infrastructures, such as roads, transit systems, or simply walkways. Consequently, there is a wide variety of urban forms, spatial structures, and associated urban transportation systems.
Considering transport developments, the urban spatial structure can be categorized by its level of Centralization and Clustering. Even if the geographical setting of each city varies considerably, the urban form and its spatial structure are articulated by two structural elements: Nodes and Linkages.

Key Issues in Urban Transportation
Traffic Crashes
Roadway Congestion
Equity
Environmental Pollution
Challenges in Urban Transportation
Legal and Regulatory Challenges
Fragmented Institutional Framework
Human Resource Challenges
Absence of Data
Comprehensive Design Standards

Travel Demand Modelling
Travel Demand Modelling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate system of zones. Modelling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternative.

Level of Service
Level of Service (LOS) is a mechanism used to determine how well a transportation facility is operating from a traveler's perspective. Typically, six levels of service are defined and each is assigned a letter designation from A to F, with LOS A representing the best operating conditions, and LOS F the worst.