hello friends ah we are going to discuss the continued part of persuasion because we have seen that persuasion is a kind of communication that needs expertise that needs honesty and sincerity to impress the very mind or persuade so we have seen that the person should be honest and person should have expertise while impressing the mental attitude of the persuade now let us see the important the key is to positive persuasion because we should focuson the positive persuasion and we should avoid the negative persuasion so what are the keys to positive ah persuasion be positive to persuade that is to say be honest be sincere know your facts and present them in a knowledgeable manner so knowing about yourself and give the accurate picture to the persuade make sure you areunderstood talk to the decision maker never engage in personal attacks on your adversary either directly or indirectly that is to say dont be prejudiced and dont be biased you should maintain your balance your emotional balance and there is no need to become emotional while dealing with the persuade now again the keys to positive persuasion if possible support your arguments with reference to third party since this adds credibility show the other side how you can solve a problem they have and your appearance does count it does count and it is if if you your appearance is positive automatically persuade gets satisfaction now decision making through persuasion what function does the persuasion process serve the persuasion process is a mean of men mean of reaching decision the process may provide the stimulus for a receiver to reach a decision it is a stimulus process that is to say thecognitive aspect so much of force that the persuade decide to take a decision so the persuasion process is a means of reaching the decision now is persuasion involved in logical decision making yes the information a man has is in part the result of persuasion efforts directed at him pers pro persuasion and the individual why do you persuade it is a very important point that what is the logic behind persuasion to fulfill my needs to get and keep a good job to accomplish my goals and to get what i want and as i said that negotiation and persuasion these two tools are very importantfor the professional of sales and marketing and also of business sometime even in the personal family that is also there how to impress your kids now persuasion and the individual a persuader how to persuade persuasion is a tool that enables us to come to mutual accommodation mutual accommodation means that both the interest should get i mean ah satisfaction and should get some space failure of persuasion can produce a stress we cannot tolerate and fragment a relationship or ah ourselves now persuasion is a tool for the receiver it may serve him or it may destroy him what can persuasion do for the receiver at the most basic level it aids him in the decision making process it puts others to work for his benefit that is to say to neutralize the dilemma position to be or not to be what should be done so the persuasion may neutralize thedilemma position to take a proper decision persuasion and society for a society to exist the people within it must accommodate themselves to one another and a means to reach decisions must be found because the main purpose of persuasion is to get a decision to get a result persuasion is in one sense the coin of interactionindividual decisions often evolved other individuals now motivation attitude and behavior the part of persuasion can we as individuals control our own motivations our own responses says sometime very difficult can we as persuaders create and direct the motivations and the response of others probably the answer to both the question is yes to a degree to some extent most of the cases yes and in some ofthe cases maybe no now as persuaders we see to affect the motivations of others so as to affect a desired outcome we have already discussed the outcome and ecology and we have seen that how we should make the frame of a person to get the desired result a persuaders psychology is evolved accurate by the persuader it may lead him to manipulate stimuli that can affect the motivation of another as the persuader typically seeks an attitude change the persuasion concept testifies to the possibility of alteration of attitudebut clearly the possibility of change is greater for some attitude than for others values are important because they are influences on almost any behavior and in one sense the goals of an individual are linked to the values he holds in this sense values become importantelements in persuasion in terms of both source and receiver anger as a persuasive tactic anger can be a very compelling influence on the other partys behavior growing angry at an unreasonable tactic or offer shows that the angered negotiator believes the other party ought to abandon that tactic or position growing angry at the other partys behavior in negotiations also has the advantage of functioning as an unspecified threat so the decision to persuade to achieve many of his goals and to get many of his needs man must affect his environment and the forces opening in it man must therefore use the tool of persuasion every person is a potential persuader beginning with the earliest influences upon us as children experienced teacher that persuasion is generally an acceptable means of influencing those around now selecting the specific persuasion purpose having made the decision to use a persuasioninstrumentally the persuader must refine the general impulse into a specific persuasion purpose factors affecting formation of the specific purpose what are the factors first the persuaders may be responding to a highly a specific need secondly the persuasive effortmay be a response to the persuasive efforts of other third the persuasion effort may be the result of an assigned task fourth the forces or factors that induce the person to become a persuader may fix the specific purpose the knowledge under a standing and the abilities of the persuader will a structure his purpose the receiver may determine the a specific purpose and receiver analysis may cause the persuader to adjust discard reshape his goal so these are the factors from formation of the a specific purpose of persuasionnow the process of selecting the a specific purpose the persuader needs co frame a rather a specific purpose by translating this general purpose into the reality of his subject matter receiver and himself first the nature of receiver we are discussing the process of selectingthe a specific purposes so the first factor is the process is a purpose is the nature of the receiver the best advice concerning accommodation to a receiver is to take and receiver ah to take a receiver where it is and move it in the direction you want it togo the subject matter the realities of the tropic area condition the purpose the material that can be found the data available the issues that have been developed the status of the problem the total world all have an impact on any given speech now framing a specificpurpose statement is the purpose clear meaningful and reasonably precise is the desired goal clearly identified is the goal one of persuasive nature not merely information transmission entertainment or some other non persuasive one does the purpose reflect the realities of receiver subject matter and the communicationnow framing are a specific purpose statement does the specific purpose have a reasonable potential or being accomplished because when we go for a higher root for a higher discussion or argument in persuasion we should take care of all these a statement the purpose statement does a specific purpose have a reasonable potential of being accomplished is the purpose essentially singular is the purpose free from the confusion of means and ends is the purposestatement adequately refined and modified as the thinking of the persuader and his analysis progress during the preparatory processnow effect the persuasion process on the source a successful persuasion effort may place the source in a position to accomplish his goal an unsuccessful persuasion effort may result in rerouting of effort radically revising a strategy shifting to new goals or abandoning the effort effects of the persuasion process on the source again behavior of the source immediately before during and after an open communication effort is obviously affected quite directly by the persuasion process now how to be a good persuader for the sensor s the focus is on facts and the use of five senses the in twitter pays attention to a vision of what could be and also engages in the use of six sense the thinker t person relies on intellectual processes reason and logic the filler f person the key word is emotion and logic may not play a significant part
Now influencing different types a persons decision making a style derives from the four psychological states they are usually paired with one of the two from the opposite function so that is a combination of the tube preferences the four types have been categorized sensing thinking that is st sensing feeling that is sf intuitive feeling that is nf and intuitive thinking that is nt this is the code now influencing different type the st person that is the sensing and thinking so the sensing and thinking person focuses on a specifics and variable facts like a stability and certainty emphasize what can be achieved in the short term prepare well and have facts and any other data readily available explain things in a logical fashion conduct your dealings in a business like and detached manner leaving the personal side out of the proceedings avoidtalking too much the sf that is sensitivity and the feeling the sensing and the feeling that is the sf as a person focuses on variable facts believes in personal loyalty trust being helpful and friendly for that use all your natural empathic to conduct things on a personal basis after you have got to know them better look for shared interests back up your attentive listening with positive body language highlight the benefits to them of your proposal conduct the discussion in a methodical a step by a step manner now third is the intuitive and the ah feeling intuitive feeling that is the nf the intuitivefeeling person recognizes a wide range of possible opportunities and decides by weighing values and considering others what are those ask lots of question and then listen a lot force the person to speak posing throwing lots of question show your natural friendliness during your interactions yes a kind of friendly atmosphere that to establish a friendly wrapper try to go with the flow of what they want and adapt as necessary give some a space tothe persuade to highlight what is new in what you are proposing yes accommodating both the ideas the new and the conventional one check the body language for any disagreement or confusion it shouldnt be violent this type often never voices their concernso you have to look for leakage then question to unearth any concern so very important is to fix up the friendship to to establish the wrapper to get more and more from the person who is the persuade now the intuitive and ah the intuitive and the thinking so the fourth one is intuitive and thinking person prefers a variety of possible solution and then selects by impersonal analysis so the first is probe for their own ideas at the outset show that you recognize their vision concepts and beware of giving the impression of being patronizing concentrate on business quickly and save any personal conversation except that this type may bombard you with critical comments be a logical in your proposals and emphasize cause and effect be punctual and well organized you have to take care of all this now testing is also very important in the middle of the face of a face to face meeting with a client or persuade or whoever the telephone rings he apologizes and takes the call while he is speaking do you look at him and smile constantly you should make a signal to him and sneak out to go to the toilet or chat to the secretary or [receipe/receptionist] receptionist turn your gaze away from him and perhaps occupy yourself with some papers or make some notes use body language to show your impatience hoping it will make him hurry up the person you are with keeps looking at her watch continuously during your decision she does not think you have spotted this but for the past twenty minutes it is been distracting you and prevented you giving your best so what do you do hurriedly bring your discussion to a close just ignore it it could be a nervous mannerism or obsessive compulsive disorder it stopped talking ateach point that she looks at her watch asked her politely how long have we got you have discovered your reading pang pen has leaked and there is a lot of ink showing down front of your shirt as you entered the interviews office your mind is on how you can possibly conceal reading do you so say that you have just returned from a holiday in any place hope she own to notice keep your arms folded at all times explain on arrival what is happened and make fun of your carelessness you are introduced to three new people and miss one of the names what do you do not worry two out of the three is not bad ask sorry i didnt catch your name make a guess ask one of the other two people the persons name idly when the person is distracted you are telephoning somebody about something that is important to you when you get through she asks if you would not mind keeping it short as she is in a meeting do you get it over with quickly it is always preferable ask lots of questions so that it will prolong the call in a natural manner tell her that you will write to hersuggest that as she is busy you prefer to call her letter in the day when she might be free now more persuasive tool reuse some from complete conflict management and what are these conflict response modes move from complaint to request use effective interpersonal skill and that can be the very good positive persuasive tools now effects of persuasion that is really very important aspect of persuasion miller proposed that communication exert three different persuasive effects shaping reinforcing and changing response responses now what is shaping attitudes are shaped by associating pleasurably environment with a product person or idea shaping your thought shaping your argument shaping your discussion reinforcing contract contrary to popular opinion many persuasive communications are not designed to convert people but to reinforce a position they already hold and then changing this is perhaps the most important persuasive impact and the one that comes most frequently to minds when we think of persuasion communication can and do change attitude
Now friend let us discuss negotiation because it is the part of persuasion so negotiation and persuasion are some ways to manage the conflict and as i said in the beginning of this lecture that persuasion is cheaper then negotiation because negotiation is expensive as is to give some kind of concession but in the case of persuasion persuasion doesnt need any kind of ah concessionso persuasion is an important part of negotiation and an important part of leadership and life including situations we might not identify as negotiation so sometime it is very difficult to make distinction conferring with another so as to arrive at the settlement of the matter as per the dictionary it is the meaning of the negotiation negotiation is a ah basic means of getting what you want from others it is a back and forth communication designed to reach an agreement when you and the other side have some interest that are opposed now there are certain negotiation myths what are these myths good negotiators are born experience is a great teacher good negotiator take risk good negotiators rely on intuitionsnegotiations are always win lose the only negotiations are formal or explicit negotiation good negotiators are tough intimidating and try to get everything they can now these are myth because one has to practice in actuality in reality no one is born negotiator one has to develop this quality now crucial elements in every negotiation information time power so information is very important in the sense only then you can get the base of the negotiation and regarding information prepare enquire listen and observe direct and indirect you are extracting the information from the person with whom you are going to negotiate so under the heading of information you need to prepare yourself then enquire maybe by putting question you listen very carefully and observe direct or indirect best alternative to a negotiated agreement this is called batna this is the best theory one of the best theories of negotiation which we shall discuss while discussing the other aspect so the first is information the second is time good to have flexibility helps to know more about others deadliness then they do about yours patience space then power many sources real and inferred can change during negotiation can be crafted and acquired sophistication and restraintin using power now negotiation required entered dependence and recognized means that interdependence you are carrying bothering for other also recognizing other also motivation to engage how to motivate the other the listener to involved in the discussion party is engaged between avoidance and domination party is engaged between avoidance and domination to make a balance enough power balance reaching an active phase now two main approaches competitive and collaborative desirable to consider at least partly collaborative negotiation not always possible appropriate or sufficient often combined competitive and collaborative approaches and practices in versatile way that is in principled negotiation now differences reclip goals for creep what is crip content win lose versus win win relational unfriendly versus friendly identity face saving rigid confrontational versus flexible supportive and process positional bargaining versus interest based bargaining goal examples content now get akash to work full time on my project is starting tweak a relational maintain good relation with akashs boss sunil identity not appear weak to sunil or others during this negotiation and process talk in person and privately so this is all you know process or goal in negotiation now crip goals interact not all types of goal may be present goals overlap and differ in importance identity and relational issues underlie content and process issue content only solutions are rarely satisfying in serious situations and goals change during interaction competitive communication patterns high opening demands and concede slowly try to maximize tangible resource gain exaggerate value of concession offered use threat confrontationsargumentation forcefully speaking conceal and distort information manipulate people and process distort intentions resources and goal focus on content goals rather than relational goals competitive disadvantages can hurt a relationship with mistrust anger breakdown communication distortion blocks creative exploration and potential joint gains payoff competitive actions are often overestimated encourages brinkmanship impasses may undermine implementation commitment versus compliance now collaborative communicative pattern collaborative practices non evaluative descriptive statementdisclosing a statement honest enquiry requesting feedback supportive remark concessions accepting responsibility brain is chomped creative new options to meet everyones interest expandthe pi log rolling ah that can also be helpful breezing invents new option to me the others need minimize cause to other for going along with you collaborative disadvantage may pressure an individual to compromise and accommodate in ways not in his her best interest avoid confrontational strategies increase vulnerability to deception and manipulation by a competitive opponent makes it hard to establish ah definite aspiration level and bottom lines requires substantial skill and knowledge of the process requires a strong confidence in ones perceptions regarding the interest and needs of other side the ultimate game first person proposes a division of the hundred dollar in whatever fashion he or she chooses a second person agrees they distribute the hundred dollar between themselves as i specified if the second person disagree they both get nothing now some important terms while discussing negotiation bargaining mix the set of issues having multiple items and being creative can be very helpful batna best alternative to negotiate a settlement sometimes are only two choices good alternatives are important target point aka aspiration desired endpoint resistant point farthest from the target point a negotiator will do a starting point the first position in negotiating plans to take bargaining range positive bargaining range negative bargaining range and lightly a statement settlement point the final point of agreementdilemma hard or soft offers third way both hard and soft hard on merit and interest soft on people how to obtain what you are entitled to and a still be decent if the other side learns this strategy it makes the negotiation easier not harder it is not an advantage tonegotiate with an unskilled opponent if you will interact later now three criteria for negotiation method which friends i would like to discuss in the next lecture of mine till then thank you very much.
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