Hello friends today we are here to discuss metacognition one of the very important pointswhile discussing neurolinguistic programming so while going ahead it is very importantto know what is metacognition and what is the role of metacognition in neurolinguisticprogramming how it is important while discussing neurolinguistic programmingin fact it is really difficult to define metacognition sometime why because metacognition is simplydefined as thinking about thinking that is to say knowing your own wisdom or knowingyour own potential or a caliber the term metacognition has been part of neurolinguistic programmingas a very concept of metacognition reflects on cognitive experiences cognitive experiencemeans your brain functioning so the very subject of metacognition is highlydebatable regarding its subject matter because it is related to psychology metacognitionis defined as cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing a skill and the knowledgeto explain the depth of ones caliber means my caliber how i am going to deal with theah the with a particular situation maybe that is my potential to explore myself and in thatcase we may say that to some extent it is metacognitionnow in metacognition meta means beyond this aspect includes knowledge about when and howto use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving now what are theseproblems we can divide metacognition into two components if we talk about problem thefirst is knowledge about cognition and the second is regulation of cognitionnow knowledge about cognition what is this i mean knowledge about cognition how how wouldyou explain it this is about your own caliber this is about your own thinking now it isjohn flavell the american psychologist who coined the term metacognition in nineteenseventy six and metacognition is classified into three components the first is metacognitiveknowledge also called metacognitive awareness and it is what individuals know about themselvesand others as cognitive process processors second is metacognitive regulation it is theregulation of cognition and learning experiences through a set of activities that help peoplecontrol their own learning third metacognitive experiences are those experiences that havesomething to do with the current ongoing cognitive endeavor now three types of metacognitiveawareness declarative knowledge what is declarative knowledge it stands for knowledge about oneselfas a learner and about what factors can influence ones performancedeclarative knowledge can also be referred to as world knowledge so this is about declarativeknowledge means know knowledge about oneself as learner second is procedural knowledgethis indicates towards the fact that knowledge is about doing things this type of knowledgeis displayed as heuristics and a a strategy heuristic a strategies a high degree of proceduralknowledge can allow individuals to perform task more automaticallynow this is achieved through a large variety of strategies that can be accessed more efficientlythird is conditional knowledge which refers to knowing when and why to use declarativeand procedural knowledge it allows students to allocate their resources when using a strategiesso this in turn allows the strategies to become more effective now levels of regulation ofcognition because knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition the two aspects ofmetacognition now what are the levels of regulation of cognitionfirst is planning which refers to the appropriate selection of a strategies and the correctallocation of resources that effect task performance monitoring refers to ones awareness of comprehensionand task performance and this is the second level of regulation of cognition the thirdlevel of regulation of cognition is evaluating and which refers to appraising the final productof a task and the efficiency at which the task was performedthis can include re evaluating a strategies that were used now in the words of taylornineteen ninety nine metacognition is an appreciation of what one already knows together with acorrect apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requirescombined with the agility to make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategicknowledge to a particular situation and to do so efficiently and reliablynow according to some psychologist metacognition is referred to as ones inner language or asthinking about ones own thinking or metacognition refers to an individuals self knowledge abouttheir cognition as well as to the ability to be able to influence ones own cognitionresearch on metacognition has a strong possibilities and opportunities to influence or understandingof learning strategies for students means for the learners with learning disabilitiesa strategy is a systematic thought or approach which allows us to get from one point to anotherand metacognition is a kind of a strategy which will give you this power to point outor to explore the faculty the power in in in within you to apply on a particular taskthat is metacognition now the goal of a strategy is to teach students how to become purposefuleffective independent learners this is the goal of metacognition because when we givetraining of nlp to the students we try to bring out the best out of that studentnow metacognition is one of the strategies to handle one of the important potential powerto handle the situation now self assessment and self monitoring are thought to enhancea strategic functioning so when we talk of metacognition these two part self assessmenthow much wisdom you have what is the caliber and self monitoring when you are pursuinga task where you are what you are doing so self monitoring are thought to enhance a strategicfunctioning metacognitive a strategy training should beincorporated into the regular language teaching program to help a students to making the learningprocess more effective when we talk of ah metacognition or neurolinguistic programmingit is more or less personality development enhancing your personality and when we talkof personality enhancement it is communication and it is effective communicationnow metacognition is one of the a strategies to help the learners to learn the better wayhow to go for effective communication among the various cognitive systems and cognitivestructures one of them happens to be the system of language and it is one of the many systemsentering into an array of interconnected cognitive structure so language means not only the verballanguage cognitive language your nonverbal languageso how you perceive people that how he or she thinks what is there in the mind so languageis also one of the systems that take place in the mind only we all know i mean linguisticallythat language has again two fold that is the ah abstract language and the concrete languageso abstract is was they already in the mind and we use as per the context how to use itas per the context that is the contextual communication very important and metacognitionis the a kind of a strategy which help us to decide that how to use that contextualah language or communication language is a part of mental organ we allknow i mean this is what i said that abstract and the concrete the abstract is always therein your mind and concrete that we actually use so a study of the mental process in isinvolved in the comprehension production acquisition of language and a number of psychology a psycholinguistics work has been devoted to the learning of language by children and on speech processingco and comprehension by both children and adultstraditional areas of research include language production language comprehension languageacquisition language disorder language and thought and neuro ah cognition an area ofstudy which draws from linguistics and psychology focuses upon the comprehension and productionof language and comprising the very part of neurolinguistic programming as a result psycholinguists who have a background of training in both linguistics and psychology have beenattempting since early nineteen sixties to gain a better understanding of how the abstractrules which determine human language are acquired and used to communicate appropriately createdmeaningful messages from one person to another via the vocal auditory mediumresearch has been directed to the evolutionary development of language the biological basisof language the nature of the sound system the rules of syntax the nature of meaningand the process of language acquisition a study of innate behavior approach to learn language is metacognition
now aspects of metacognition because we were talking about the variousstrategies of metacognition metacognition is a kind of a strategy so what are the aspectsnow there are three important aspects of metacognition the first is self awareness the second islanguage are acquired and third is preparation and planning for effective learning so thefirst is self awareness and this particular stage refers to no ones learning style whena learner knows their individual learning style they can take measures which will enablethem to process the information more efficiently if a student knows that they have lose concentrationor memory is weak he or she will also be aware of how to develop this by note taking andstudying the notes the second step explains more about how languagesare acquired language acquisition is a delicate process that involves both knowing informationand knowing how to utilize it if students believe that by merely attending classes theywill learn the language it stands to reason that they will not reach their objective butif the students are aware of the fact that it is necessary to participate actively inthe class to get involved and take part in every activity they will have a greater chanceof being effective and successful the third and the final step is the stageof preparation and planning for effective learning the setting of learning goals israther crucial because learners will attain the very objective more easily if they haveclearly stated what these are now looking these three aspects of metacognitive learningwe can analyze it further dividing into four important segments what are these segmentsfirst selection of appropriate learning strategies knowing your limitations try to find out whichone is more appropriate while learning a particular task monitoring a strategy usewhile selecting one strategies or applying it while learning a task try to monitor itis it fruitful is it useful while pursuing a task orchestrating various strategies andevaluating a strategy use and learning now the above mentioned a strategies i mean allthese ah a strategies can be adopted by the trainer according to the need of the studentfor example somebody needs monitoring a strategy use somebody needs orchestrating various strategynow selection of appropriate learning a strategy a student can assume or a learner can assumethat he she actually wants while learning language what she actually wantthe trainer can promote this reflection by being explicit about the particular learninggoals they have set for the class and guiding the students in setting their own learninggoals if the goal is clearly articulated it will be easier for the learners to measuretheir progress and the trainer might set a goal for the students of getting command overthe vocabulary from a particular chapter in the textbook now a student to make set a goalfor himself or being able to answer the comprehension questions at the end of the chapternow researchers have suggested that teaching readers how to use a specific reading a strategyis a prime consideration in the reading classroom the metacognitive ability to select and useparticular strategy in a given context for a specific purpose means that the learnercan think and make conscious decisions about the learning process now to be effective ametacognitive instructions should explicitly teach a students a variety of learning strategiesand also when to use them this is very important for a trainer as well as a student one possiblea strategy is word analysis now for example dividing the word into its prefix and thestem another possible strategy is the use of context clues to help guess the meaningof a word but a student must receive explicit instruction in how to use these strategiesand they need to know that no single strategy will work in every instance teachers or trainershould show them how to choose the strategy that has the best chance of success in a givensituation next is monitoring a strategy use by monitoringtheir use of learning a strategies a students or the learners feel better to keep themselveson track to meet their learning goal once they have selected and begin to implementa specific strategies they need to ask themselves periodically whether or not they are stillusing those strategies as intended now for example a students may be taught that an effectivewriting a strategy involve thinking about their audience and their purpose in writingthat is to explain to persuade now students can be taught that to monitortheir use of a strategy ah they should pause occasionally while writing to ask themselvesquestions about what they are doing such as whether or not they are providing the rightamount of background information for their intended audience and whether the examplesthey are using are effective in supporting their purpose orchestrating various strategieswhile learning language i mean this is the third level while learning language a learnerhas to face various difficulties now to cope with these one has to apply varioustheories which are the combination of a strategy this theory is called orchestrating variousstrategies that is the use of more than one strategy this method is an important metacognitiveskill the ability to coordinate organize and make association among the various strategiesavailable is a major distinction between a strong and weak i mean second language learneror or anything that you are trying to learn now the trainer can assist students by makingthem aware or alert of multiple strategies available to them for example by trainingthem how to use both word analysis and context clues to determine the meaning of an unfamiliarword that is this the pragmatic aspect of learning language now the teacher also needsto show students how to recognize when one strategy is not working and how to move onto another this is very important where a learner is faulty for example a student maytry to use word analysis to determine the meaning of the word antimony having recognizedanti as a prefix meaning against but that strategy ah that strategy wont work in thisinstance anti is not a prefix here antimony is a metallicchemical element that has nothing to do with being against or opposed to something so whenthe student finds the word analysis does not help her figure out what this word means sheneeds to know how to turn to other strategies such as context clues to help her to understandthe word now next a strategy for use and learning and evaluation so we are discussing like imean pursuing or learning this the foreign languageso second language learners are actively involved in metacognition when they attempt to evaluatewhether what they are doing is effective teachers or trainer can help the student evaluate theira strategy use by asking them to respond thoughtfully to this these questions what am i trying tolearn what strategies am i using how efficiently am i using them what other way could i doso these are the pertinent questions to know the effective way to learn while respondingto these four questions a student gets reflection of all the previous aspects of metacognitionallowing the second language learner to reflect through the cycle of learning a preparingand planning relates to identifying what is to be accomplished while selecting and usingparticular a strategies relate to the question of which strategies are being usednow for example while teaching their specific reading skill of main idea comprehension theteacher can help their students evaluating there a strategy use ah by using the fourquestions first focusing on the main idea of the text ah the teacher can motivate theirstudent to find out the real task or the understanding of the text clearly planning to explore themain idea the teacher can persuade the readers to know the acquired planning and to identifythe main idea knowing and purposefulness of the a strategynow research shows that learners whose skills or knowledge basis are weak in a particulararea tend to overestimate their ability in the ah in that particular area now in otherwords they dont know enough to recognize that they lack sufficient knowledge for accurateself assessment in contrast learners whose knowledge or skills are a strong may underestimatetheir ability now these high ability learners dont recognize the extent of their knowledgeor skills now krueger and dannys research also showthat it is possible to teach learner at all ability levels to assess their own performancemore accurately so the interactions of metacognitive skills learning languages and individual taskalso and it varies from person to person at the same time metacognition is not a linearprocess that moves from preparing and planning to evaluating more than one metacognitiveprocess may be occurring at a time during a second language learning task and this highlightsonce again how the orchestration of various strategy is a vital component of second languagelearning similarly maintaining motivation to see atask to completion is also a metacognitive skill the ability to become aware of distractingstimuli both internal and external and sustained effort over time also involves metacognitiveor executive functions so the theory that metacognition has a critical role to playin successful learning means it is important that it be demonstrated by both students andteacher so students we have seen that how metacognitionis important because neurolinguistic programming gives you a power to assess yourself why assessingyourself to get the best out of your potentials now metacognition is one of the power to getout the best potentials we have discussed while discussing neurolinguistic programmingthat how to use resources for that flexibility is required while pursuit persuading a taskmay be that we fail and that particular strategy through which we are pursuing a particularprogram may not click now in that direction or in that situationwhat else could be done if you are flexible if you know how to exploit other resourcesyou go for other resource and apply it the strategy and if the work is done you willget success so metacognition is very important to assess yourself to know your limitationsas well as your plus point and you can do that whether through introspection throughpracticing through discussion and through other things so once you know yourself onceyou can locate your lacunae or limitations you can go for other resources other strategythat may lead you to the path of success in that way metacognition is a very very importantpart of neurolinguistic programming as well as for those who are learning new thingsi have given you the example of second language learning or any foreign languages even forthat you need a kind of motivation so how to persuade yourself to learn a foreign languageyou need to apply various theories or various strategy that is why i mentioned orchestrationorchestration theory means as there are wides in orchestra and the wide to a particularcontext similarly the qualities which you have and which quality is useful for a particularcontext with these words i would like to conclude and try to understand metacognition with thehelp of knowing yourself and with the help of trying doing effort that is the best wayto know yourself keep on doing efforts to move ahead in the life and you will know yourselfbetter thank you
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