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Module 1: Molecular Probes

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Two modified oligonucleotides which are of major use in biochemistry as molecular probes are PNA and LNA.
Normal DNA has a sugar-phosphate backbone, while PNA has a peptide backbone; both of them have nucleic acids.
LNA has a rigid, locked sugar structure.
Both PNA and LNA are more stable in living cells compared to a foreign DNA.
Both PNA and LNA are target-selective.
Depending on the number of sugar units present in a molecule, carbohydrates are of the following types:
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are typically large molecules present in different organisms as a major component of their structures.