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Introduction to Tissue Engineering – Lesson Summary

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Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering, and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. Tissue Engineering involves the use of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose.

Historical Background of Tissue Engineering
In 1970 W.T. Green, an Orthopedic surgeon conducted 1st research related to Tissue Engineering. He suggested that by implanting chondrocyte cells into spicule of bone, where cell multiplication & growth of bone continues (cartilage formation).
In the Mid-1980’s Dr. Vacanti and Dr. Langer devised a method that would attempt to create scaffoldings for cell delivery instead of using naturally occurring scaffoldings that could not be replicated.
In 1994, Tissue Engineering Scaffold (TES) was founded by Charles & Vacanti officially in Boston.
By 2005, Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS) which included both Asian & European Societies, was created.

Methods of Tissue Engineering
The following are the different ways which can trigger the regeneration of tissues:
Biomaterial Delivery
Cell Delivery
Molecular Delivery

Signaling Molecules
Signaling Molecules are often called ligands, a general term for molecules that bind specifically to other molecules (such as receptors). The message carried by a ligand is often relayed through a chain of chemical messengers inside the cell.

Growth Factors
Growth Factors are critical signaling molecules that instruct cells during development, and one may achieve tissue regeneration in the adult by enabling control over growth factor delivery