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Module 1: Signaling, Bioreactors and Challenges in Tissue Engineering

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Cell Adhesion
Cell Adhesion is the process by which cells form contacts with each other or with their substratum through specialized protein complexes. Intercellular adhesion can be mediated by adherens junctions, tight junctions and desmosomes, whereas cells can interact with extracellular matrix molecules through focal adhesions.

Cell Migration
Cell Migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Tissue formation during embryonic development, wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of cells in particular directions to specific locations.
The following are the types of Cell Migration:
Random Migration
Directed Migration

Brownian Motion
Brownian Motion is the random motion of particles suspended in a medium. This pattern of motion typically consists of random fluctuations in a particle's position inside a fluid subdomain that is followed by a relocation to another subdomain.

Cell Signaling
Cell Signaling is the process of cellular communication within the body driven by cells releasing and receiving hormones and other signaling molecules. As a process, cell signaling refers to a vast network of communication between, and within, each cell of our body. Cell signaling enables coordination within multicellular organisms.

The following are the various types of cell signals:
Chemical Signals
Physical Signals
Electrical Signals

Biomolecule
A Biomolecule is a chemical compound found in living organisms. These include chemicals that are composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Biomolecules are the building blocks of life and perform important functions in living organisms.

Bioreactors
A Bioreactor is a manufactured device where a biological reaction is carried out. It is a closed system used for bioprocessing, that supports the growth of cells or tissues.