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Module 1: Material Characterization

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Material Characterization
Material characterization is the process of measuring and determining physical, chemical, mechanical and microstructural properties of materials.

Types of Characterization Techniques
Surface Characterization
Microscopic Techniques
Physiochemical Characterization
Mechanical Characterization
Biological Characterization

Surface Characterization
The Surface Characterization technique is a most powerful means to quantify surfaces under investigation. Nowadays, various analytical techniques are developed to scale down surfaces at the nano level. Surface flaws' detection is immensely necessary to prevent any future damage to the components or machines.

Microscopic Techniques
Microscopy is the technique used to view objects that cannot be seen by the naked eye. The range can be anything between mm and nm. There are three main microscopic techniques that are used; Optical microscopy, Scanning probe microscopy and Electron microscopy.

Physicochemical Characterization
Physicochemical Characterization seeks to define the physical and chemical properties, composition, identification, quality, purity, and stability of the material.

Mechanical Characterization
Mechanical Characterization is done by determining different properties such as elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and fracture toughness. Conventional mechanical characterization methods such as the DMA or UTM typically require the destruction of large samples.

Biological Characterization
Biological characterization is a process which establishes, maintains, and controls certain biological characteristics inside one defined system.