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Module 1: Motivation

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KEY TERMINOLOGY – LESSON SUMMARY

Motivation: Willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach a goal.
Motive: Force that pushes you towards a goal.
The Basic Motivation Process: Needs > Drives > Incentives
Types of Motives:
• Primary Motives (unlearnt and physiological)
• General Motives (curiosity, paternal, manipulative activity)
• Secondary Motives (security, affiliation, achievement, status, etc.)

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Theories of Motivation are divided into two categories:
Content Theories - What motives people. 
Progress Theories - How people are motivated. 

CONTENT THEORIES

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory: a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. ... From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory: A Theory that states that certain factors in the workplace cause job satisfaction while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction, all of which act independently of each other.

ERG Theory: A theory that condenses Maslow's five human needs into three categories: Existence, Relatedness and Growth.

PROGRESS THEORIES

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: A Theory that assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives due to what they expect the result of that selected behaviour to be.

Equity Theory: the idea that what an individual receives for their work has a direct effect on their motivation. When applied to the workplace, it means an individual will generally aim to create a balance between what they give to the organization compared to what they get in return.

Job Characteristics Theory: A theory that is based on the idea that a task in itself is the key to the employee's motivation. In short, a boring and monotonous job is disastrous to an employee's motivation whereas a challenging, versatile job has a positive effect on motivation.