The Key Contents from this Module are:
The main writing systems in the world can be grouped into three basics forms namely:
1. The Logographic system: This system came from simple structures(symbols) people made. They represented words or morpheme. All writing systems started off logographic and a typical example is Chinese.
2. Syllabary: In this system, a certain syllabus is used. The unit of the system is the syllable. A good example is Japanese.
3. Alphabets: Here the speech sound is used. The unit of the system is Phoneme. Ancient Greek was the first to invent alphabets followed by the Koreans.
Orthography can be defined as the set of rules for writing the words of a language.
They are of two types namely:
Learning to read letters is difficult and complicated by a variety of fonts, sizes and styles of letter representation. Novice readers are advised to develop an abstract representation of letters.
Reading aloud is also another step in learning to read. Novice readers tend to use flat intonation when reading, pausing at inappropriate locations, whereas skilled readers use natural intonation and pause at prosodic phrase boundaries.
Reading is a learned skill with a wide range of outcomes expected. Reading disability depends on arbitrary cutoff in a normal distribution.
Learning the symbols of the writing system
Learning how to combine letters to form words
Learning how to compose texts
Phonological Awareness; Is understanding that words can be broken down into smaller sound structures. Recognizing onsets(tic, tac, toe) and rhymes (cat, bat, mat) can clap to the rhythm of the syllabus.
Alphabet Principle; Is the process of associating written symbols with speech sounds.
Phonic-based Approach; Is a method of teaching reading. It explicitly trains children to recognize consistent relationships between letters and sounds.