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Module 1: Fascismo

    Study Reminders

    Fascism is one of the most fundamental themes in political ideology. Nowadays, societies do have fascist elements and fascistic groups, and the use of violence which does help to propagate a climate of fear is a notable feature of fascist movements.
    In modern times there have been only four explicitly fascist states:


    The main ideas in fascism include:

    nation as an organic unity
    action springing solely from the will
    glorification of war
    the leader principle
    permanent struggle

    Nazism is a specific form of fascism.
    Fascist societies and systems are riddled with contradictions of all kinds and these have caused enormous problems, particularly with the modern world, and may well have contributed to the collapse of these societies and systems.
    History shows a strong connection between the Hindu Right and the Nazi Germany. On the side of the Hindu right, that connection was primarily a political one. On the side the Nazi leaders, the connection was complex, intellectual and even quasi-spiritual. 
    Not only Indians were interested in fascism. Despite the contradictions and criticisms of fascism, that ideology got support across so many sections of many different societies, from which fascist leaders got legendary adulation.
    The case of Adolf Eichmann exemplifies a fascist system clearly. Adolf Eichmann was one of the major organizers of the Holocaust. Eichmann did this work thoroughly and efficiently, making sure that the Jewish population of Germany and other parts of Europe were identified, rounded up and transported to concentration and extermination camps. After the Second World War, he was searched for trial.
    After many escapes, Eichmann was eventually arrested in Argentina and sent to Israel. Tried there he was found guilty, convicted of crimes against the Jewish people, and hanged. Eichmann exemplifies the involvement of ordinary people in Nazism and Fascism   
    Naomi Wolf wrote a book and published an article on the possibility of the United States becoming a fascist State following the attacks on September 11, 2001. In her book she highlighted ten features to be considered to qualify a State as fascist, to which the United States is a good fit:   

    To invoke a terrifying internal and external enemy
    Create a gulag
    Develop a Thug Caste
    Internal surveillance system
    Harass citizens’ groups
    Arbitrary detention, arrest, and release must become part of the way the state proceeds’
    Key individuals must be targeted
    Control the Press
    Dissent, disagreement must be equated with treason
    The rule of law must be suspended

    Roy Peter Clark, Mark Nuckols, Andrew Gawthorpe, Geoffrey Cane are some writers who   criticized Wolf for the sloppy use of language, particularly the use of the words fascism and Holocaust.