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Module 1: Data Link Protocols

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Address Resolution Protocol

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Address Resolution Protocol
Hello. So we will be continuing our discussion on Computer Networks and InternetProtocol. So, we were discussing on layer 2 or data link layer phenomena. So, we haveseen that aspects of flow control error control at layer 2 of the data link layer which isone of the major aspect of things. Apart from that the packets need to be switched orwhat we say frame needs to be forwarded at the layer 2 level.As we understand that anything any upper layer packet finally, becomes it payload to thisdata link layer we needs to be forwarded to the next hop through these through the somelayer two mechanisms all right or in other sense whatever the logical address space isthere, we need to be resolved to the next hop physical address to send the packet or theframe from one host to the next host next hop.So, it can be router to router, router to switch, switch to router, system to switch andanything correct. So, that is why we will be today we will be looking at or may be intocoming two lectures will be looking at different as protocols of the layer 2 phenomena,so namely ARP, RARP, BOOTP, DHCP. Some of these protocols also we might havediscussed in our earlier lectures or at the when we were discussing at the top level things;nevertheless what I felt that this has direct linkages with our layer 2 level switching ordata link level switching.So, we need to we thought that it should discussed in the perspective of the layer 2 ordata link layer right.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:59)
So, if you look at the first protocol which is predominant is the address resolutionprotocol, sometime which is also known as a companion protocol for our IP network orIP layer or what we say internet protocol in the layer 3.So, 2 machine on a given network can communicate only if they know each otherphysical address. So, this is bottom line. So, unless they know your physical address theycannot communicate, unless there is a physical connection you cannot communicateright.So, first of all the connectivity should be there whether it is wired wireless whatever, butthere should be a connectivity, the connectivity is not there whatever you do in the upperlayer you cannot communicate all right.Similarly, unless you know the physical address you cannot push it to the next hop. So,ARP serves or address resolution protocols serves for mapping from high level IPaddress to this low level MAC address or physical address sometimes known as looselyas network address also right or hardware address, so to say right.So, that these ARP transform these from a logical address to this physical address.
(Refer Slide Time: 03:12)
Now, what is this ARP? So, what we see first of all? Every machine every systemwhether it is a PC or server or laptop or a router with multiple interfaces we come to thatrouter etcetera.Any devices or a printer which are which can be network enabled any devices which arenetwork enabled has a logical address or IP address and a corresponding physicaladdress. And typically we have seen that for IPv4 this is a 4 byte address space and thisis a 6 byte address space or the physical address and also we learnt that this physicaladdress of a device is unique; that is given by the hardware manufacturer on the things.So, there are again I am repeating there are issues of cloning those physical address. So,we are not going to those complicacies, but physical address of a network device is aunique right. Whereas there can be multiple like logical address at the same time, but therouter takes care of that how it to be there like these are private IP block.So, private IP block can be same for 10 dot 4 dot 10 dot 90 can be in different places allright, but as private IP’s are non routable, so there is not a problem of clashing with otherright; nevertheless physical addresses are unique.Now, what I want to do if I want to send the packet from here to here, so only knowingthis logical addressing will not suffice right. So, I need to know the physical address
from that particular packet or frame in terms of layer 2 to this thing right. So, if I onlyknow the logical address I need to resolve that.So, usually what happen? You when station a this is b you want to send to a station awants know it is logical address or IP address and his physical address or MAC address,where as for the where it wants to say it needs its logical address or the IP address theseIP address is known to this, but b’s physical address is not known to it.So, for that it requires a resolution or resolving the thing right. So, these IP once I hit thatgive me this 10 dot 4 dot 90 91 MAC address it should response to the things all right orsomebody else will tell me that this IP is these things right. So, there should be someaddress resolution protocol right that exactly ARP does.So, like ARP request from here to here or here to here, so different level of ARP requestwhen the files are getting transferred right. So, I need to know the physical address of theboth the parties to transfer the packet or frame.So, ARP so if there is a ARP request ARP response with these, so somebody requestingthis first terminal that what is your physical address. So, it will request response will belike that right.(Refer Slide Time: 06:31)
So, in other sense as we have seen what we have done a logical address or the IP addressto the physical address is the bottomline thing what ARP or address resolution protocoldoes all right.On the other hand, there is a concept of reverse ARP RARP all right. So, that is from ifgiven a physical address a logical addressing I want to know the logical address right.Why this is required, will come to that right.One of the thing what we can give that if I have a some sort of a terminal say dumbterminal or a systems where I have the physical address because, I have an interface card,but somebody else need to give me the logical address, I do not know I have connectedthis terminal or a systems into this network and then I do not know that where the IPaddress is there. Either I ask the system administrator that give me the IP address andetcetera and he gives the thing or I somewhere other request to somewhere like a theremay be a RARP server, where I request to give me a logical address.So, this is my physical address give me a logical address of this network and then Iconsider as a all right. So, especially it is true for dumb terminals which are which are donot have their own configuration saved, they request on the during the boot or bootstrapit request for the for the IP address and there will get connected to the things right.So, in other sense, I require some reverse resolution right and there are some otherscenarios where I want to know that what is the logical addressing of the things. I mighthave get a request from the things then I want to know that logical address of a particularsystem right. So, those are different scenarios where this RARP becomes important.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:34)
Now, as we were discussing in the TCP/IP protocol suite where, this ARP or RARP sitsall right. So, one way of looking at it, they are interface between the IP and the yourMAC layer or data link layer all right. So, why these? Because, one side they are thisARP or RARP have that IP addresses, which is your legal address which is a phenomenaof a network layer on the other side it has the physical layer things.So, sometimes it is in some several literature is referred to as a companion protocol to IP.So, it helps in (Refer Time: 09:14) in doing a in doing some sort of a address resolutionat the data link layer. So, ok, so this is there. So, in other sense in some of the literaturewill find that it is a protocol which is in between like IP and then down layer is the datalink layer, so this is the in between nevertheless, it resolved IP to physical and physical toIP in the reverse.
(Refer Slide Time: 09:44)
So, ARP associates an IP with its physical address or a typically physical network such asa LAN, each a LAN each device a on a link is identified by the physical or stationaddress or network address that is usually imprinted on the NIC right, as you arediscussing that NIC is the network interface card, which comes with the hardwareaddress and this ARP associates help us in associating IP address with the physicaladdress or the MAC address, hardware address, network address whatever we put or NICimprinted address or NIC address.So, logical address to physical address translation can be done statically, also I can keepa look up table that this is my logical address, this is my set of physical address (ReferTime: 10:32) it is fine, so long you are it is not dynamic all right. The same systems arethere and everything configure then this is fine, not only it is straight forward it is alsosets time on this address resolution.But in reality, it is not like that right. It is a you are looking for a dynamic network and itbecomes a huge network, there means there is a change you need to change everywhereand type of things, so this ARP this dynamicity are brought in into the system.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:07)
So, as we are talking that is system A and there is A wants to know about some node saysystem B. So, what it does because, system a does not know that which IP address whatis the which one is the physical address all right. So, in a network, the A wants to send tosome system B all right. So, it is in the same network. So, it is single hop away all right,but the A does not know what is the physical address of the things.So, it cannot send the DLL at the data link layer or layer 2 frame to the B. So, what itfirst need to do, send the ARP request that say anybody is there with this IP, send me thephysical address. So, ARP request is typically broadcast because, it is does not know thatwhere the things will be there right.Whereas, only one fellow will reply whose physical address which logical addressmatches with the IP and since the physical address, so it is ARP reply is unicast all right.So, it responses with the B’s physical address that is A 4 6 E whatever.So, whatever is there in the thing right. So, this is a example will find some literature.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:32)
So, this ARP is ARP packet structure or packet format is like this. So, one is hardwaretype protocol type, hardware length, protocol length operation type that is one forrequest, 2 for reply all right and then what we require, sender hardware address, senderprotocol address that is from the if A to B is hardware address B’s processes hardwareaddress and protocol address and then targets hardware address and the protocol addressall right.So, these are the things which are required out here. So, these are the things we require.But what happened that when you are sending a ARP request it is not known right. So,all 0’s all right, so it is not known that what is the targets hardware address there exactlywhat the ARP request is looking for.So, hardware address for ethernet type it is typically the value is 1, protocol type for IPv4which is predominant thing is 0x that is 800, hardware length is the length of the ethernetaddress in this case 6, protocol length is the length of the IP address which is 4 all right.So, these are the things which an operations is either request or response for request wesend 1 and for response 2.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:09)
Now, how this ARP packet will be there? So, ARP encapsulation of the ARP packet, soARP packet is encapsulated within an ethernet frame all right.So, it becomes a payload into the things, rest you remember this preamble and SFD is 8byte destination address and so and so forth are things are there, it is embedded into thething all right. This is the ethernet frame all right. So, type field of the ethernet is0x0806.(Refer Slide Time: 14:51)
So, 4 cases can be there right as we were discussing; one is that your host has a packet tosend to another network on the same network all right another host on the same networkit can be in the same network. So, target IP address destination address in the IPdatagram. Here the host want to send a packet to another host on the another network;that means, the host will send to the router right. So, it is on the other network, so it willsend to the router. So, target IP address, IP address of a router in this case IP address ofthe in the IP destination address within the IP datagram in this case, the address is arouter. Third may be the router receives a packet to be send to a host on another network.So, it is a router to router, so that need to be resolve all right. So, and the finally routerreceives a packet sends to be the to the to the host; in other sense one is directly you cansend to the host; host if it is in the same network or host to some layer 3 device and thereare from it goes on and at the end of the things it goes on (Refer Time: 16:00) that is theto the host router. Another can be router to router intermediate communication or routerto host on the thing right.So, this is the 4 thing. Now incidentally if you look at the router, router has multipleinterfaces correct. Typically a router has a 4 interfaces. So, 4 interfaces 4 IP address, 4 IPaddress and interface at it says that it has a 4 NIC card or in other sense 4 physical orhardware address.So, the router in return have may have multiple or will have multiple this sort ofinterfaces. Now it depends that where the connectivity is there which path it is followingfor that one router to another. So, there it depends that which particular interfacehardware address need to be resolved to get the get back the hardware address, so that,the frame can be forwarded to the things. So, this 4 cases can handle all possiblecombinations.
Address Resolution Protocol - Part 2
Now, one example again from some (Refer Time: 17:06) if we look at a host with IPaddress 130 23 43 20 and physical address something has a packet or layer 2 frame tosend to another host with IP address so and so and physical address so and so all right.The physical address at the beginning while that initial source system is sending to thedestination is not known all right. The 2 host are on the same ethernet network, so thatmeans, it does not require those router etcetera shows the ARP, I want to look at the ARPrequest and response.(Refer Slide Time: 17:47)
So, if you look at the ARP request path, so what it is happening? It does not know thatwhat is the hardware address of the destination rest are known right, 130, 23, 43, 20 so,these are these are things which are embedded into the things right it is known 130, 23,43, 20 in the x and it is also known that where 120, 23, 43, 25 is the destination that issorry, this is also embedded and this hardware address only it is what is not known is thisone right, the physical address of the things.So, we make a ARP packet and forward it where it broadcasts because, it does not knowwho is the owner of that IP address. Now on receiving one of the fellows whose thingsmatches is response which is the instead of this is physical address of the thing all right.So, for it its own address becomes the whatever the address and the destination for it thedestination becomes this hardware address and the IP etcetera.So, you see this one is mapped to this and rest are there right corresponding mapped.And then, I then I know do not require a broadcast at the layer 2 level, then I can do aunicast because, I know that where to be send right. So, it becomes again ethernet packetand push into the network for a particular destination.So, that is why, I can able to the things. So, this is a ARP request and corresponding ARPresponse on the things.(Refer Slide Time: 19:24)
There is a concept called proxy ARP. So, this part is clear all right. So, just to beforegoing to the procedure let me just repeat it. So, this was my protocol packet, what we getthat once it is filled up, it filled a it is basically become a payload of the ethernet thing.We are considering the ethernet once that is there, there are there can be 4 cases; one ishost to host, host to router, router to host and router to router.So, this can be either in the same network or different network and based on the thingswill be there, then what we have trying to see that how this things are formed. So, I havethat source having the IP and the hardware address whereas, the destination at the IP, butare not the hardware address. So, if the packet is filled up accordingly correct. So, thisthing in the pink is that what it is not known and then once it is filled up, it is send to thenetwork in a broadcast move because, the IP address is not known, who is the owner ofthis IP address is not known of destination.So, once that is pushed, this fellow reads this and responds back resolve it whoever is theowner of the things resolved it in a unicast mode. So, this is a broadcast whereas, herewe get as a B to A in a unicast mode. So, this is the bottom line of the ARP. So, at thisaddress is resolved.Now a proxy ARP running in a router can so there is a concept of proxy ARP. So, let ustry to see what is a proxy ARP. So, at the term signifies if proxies for group of systemsright. So, as if it proxies for group of systems. Now a proxy ARP running in a router canrespond to an ARP request to for any type any of its proteges that is for its back endsystems.The proxy ARP replies with its own MAC address when the packet arrives and the routerdelivers it to the appropriate host. So, what it happens? There a proxy ARP typicallyrunning on a router it whenever there is a request come for a group of systems which ison the back of the router it responded with its own IP address. That means, it proxies ortake care of the all the systems. So, it absorbs the packet and then push the packet to therest of the network.The proxy ARP router replies to any ARP request received right for the destination soand so, 141, 26, 56, 21, so there are 3 systems 21 22 23, so it proxies on the things.
So, on receiving the things it delivers the things and reply back and on their behalf. So,what it happens we will see that there are lot of advantages in there. Not only advantagesin some of the cases, there is a requirement we need to do that. So, this is special case ofARP where one server is taking care of the things.(Refer Slide Time: 22:30)
So, proxy ARP or sometimes call also promiscuous ARP or ARP hack is a technique usedto map a single IP network prefix 2 1 or more physical address all right, using the samenetwork address space for more than one physical address all right. Assume that there aretwo network A B connected by a router R that runs a proxy ARP.So, using proxy ARP R can use the same network id for both the networks all right. So,this is the thing it can do the proxy ARP.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:10)
So, it is take a with a sub net marks. So, it with this particular router with a proxy ARP,another network may be a PPP network, network B is so and so forth. So, this these takescare connects those 2 network or proxying for the both the network A and B all right.
So, router R replies to ARP requests that are generated by the host on the PPP networkright. There is a network B and in which the target IP is on the network A namely it sendsthe MAC address of the thing right.
So, R knows which host are connected through PPP and so and so forth all right. So,these hosts assume that the destination host on the same physical network right. In theirARP tables, the router MAC address is associated with the destination IP address right.Advantage of the proxy ARP over the networking scheme is simplicity of handling somany things.So, what it happening that in doing so, it as if things that it is in the same network. So, Athings on the thing and then send the ARP request to that router and which in turnsreplies back on this B and on the other hand, it also takes care of the other part of thething; that is the network A, so it proxies on the both the side.So, what it becomes say I want to increase a system, decrease a system, so long I amhandling within the network marks, I do not bothered about updating the ARP tableetcetera. So, this is one major advantage of handling this type of things right.So, and secondly, that the manageability is now concentrated within how to handle thisrouter. Not only that if we look if we thing little allowed that or if we think little on thebroader aspect what you see that, now I have a handler or I have somewhere I canbasically control this who can access what or if I want to keep something allow that thisproxy ARP itself can be there. And in other sense, I can also restricting this broadcastingthing to a large thing right. So, the broadcasting and congesting the network on a largerthis is a unable to restrict that.
So, there are typically uses like joining a broadcast LAN with a serial network dialupVPN etcetera where it will be a very helpful otherwise this interoperability etcetera hasto be handled that how this IP addresses will be address and so and so forth. Takingmultiple addresses from a LAN and making means more than 1 addresses from a LANand handling them on a firewall I can have some sort of a firewall level, what we sayoperations into the things. There are issues of mobile IP’s right those IP which are mobileIP’s where also it will be very helpful so that, I can have handling this mobile IP will bemuch easier.
So, if you look at the ARP module per say all right, what that ARP want to will have?One is that, I sends requires sender things, but from the operational point of view theynot then that may not be very cache or helpful right. Once so what are the things it willbe there? There can be a cache table with caching that what are the recent resolution.So, that if there is request coming within a shorter time period, it can reply from thatcache only, there can ARP queue output module input module and cache control module.So, these are the typical modules which is there in a ARP suite all right or what I can sayARP software package.
So, cache table if the ARP is just resolved an IP address chances that are few momentslater there is a request to resolve the same IP address.When ARP returns the MAC address is placed on the cache. When the next request comefor the same IP address look at its cache and reply back. So, it saves time saves networkbandwidth and so and so forth.So, cache table typically contained a queue number which queue the ARP request issitting in, attempts how many times have it has been tried for the resolution timeout, howlong you can go on trying before the things that it is flushed out, hardware addressdestination hardware address and protocol address the IP address. So, IP address versushardware address is the mapping function and there are other things which needed tomanage those things.
So, working of the caches is straight forward, there output module waits for an IP packetfor a request. Checks that cache for an existing request, if the entry is resolved that is orsometimes say that is the entry becomes R, we have already have this MAC address. Ifthe entry found and the state is pending packet waits until the destination hardwareaddress is found.So, either it can be resolved or it is in a pending state.
So, like typically original cache table used for those examples if you look at or someexample scenarios like we say that there is a state is resolved, queue is 5 time out time is9 out 900 after which it will be flushed out, protocol IP is this and the hardware addressis this.So, within that if there is request come, so if it is a pending, so is there it is still pending,pending resolve some of the things and this time out period is going on. So, after the timeout period goes off that cache flushed out. So, that it is a older version of the things.
So, ARP output module receives an IP address from a IP layer with the destinationaddress and so and so forth all right. So, it is getting a module that 114 dot 5 dot 7 dot 89it is there, 114 dot 5 dot 7 dot 89, it is already resolved and resolved state and or withinthe time period. And finds that there existing there in the revolved state R table it extractthe hardware address whatever the hardware address and sends to the packet and theaddress to the data link layer for transmission.This cache table remains the same. So, it is nothing to change it goes on doing that.
So, scenario 3, the 20 seconds later ARP modules received a IP datagram from for thedestination 116 dot 1 dot 7 dot 22, it is there 116 dot it is not there right. It checks thetable and find that the destination addresses not present in the table right.So, it creates a so the module adds a new entry for the state pending with the statepending and attempt is one. It creates a new queue in the destination enqueues thepacket, is then sends a ARP request to the data link layer for the destination the newcache table will be looking like this.
So, there is a new entry of 116 dot 1 dot 7 dot 22 right. 116 dot 1 dot 70 this with an IPentry and there is a new queue is there with that attempt is 1 all right.
Example 4, fifteen seconds later the ARP input module receives a ARP packet with targetIP 118 dot 11 dot 8 dot 71 right. Let us check whether, it is there 118 dot 11 dot 8 dot 71,it is that the module checks the table, if the it changes the state to resolved right. ARPmodules receives a packet with a target IP this is the module resolved and sets the secondand 900, the module adds the IP address sorry MAC address or the hardware addressthese to the entry.Now, it accesses it accesses queue 18 and send the packet to the queue the new entry isthere. So, what is there, it was in a pending state now it receives the thing what that issorry 118 dot 11 dot 8 dot 71, 118 dot 11 dot 71 and then it resolves the with a IP addressMAC address like this.
And there may be a some 25 seconds later, the cache control module updates every entrythe time out values for the 3 resolved entries are decremented by 60. And the timeout forthe last resolved decremented by 25, the state of the entry is resolved to free because thetimeout is 0 right.So, for each of the 3 pending, so what we are doing? It some sort of a house keepingthing. So, once it is there, it checks the timeout decrease decrements the timeout or if it is
the timeout, I expired it flush out the things and make it free and then the new tablebecomes like this all right.So, it goes on doing this so that. So, you see this table handles this IP with a MACaddress right and also it go on updating it over a on a periodic basis. Now any requestcome first consult the table all right. So, this is important, this ARP cache table or ARPtable is important because, it gives it makes a proper maintenance of the things, makesthe overall communication process at the data link layer if you send in other sense, at theall the upper layer things much efficient to handle this right.So, what will we have seen now that how a higher level address, while packet comingfrom the higher level or this address need to be resolved to the hardware address, so thatit can be transferred to the things all right, to the next hop. So, I again repeat we allthough will or know that in order to transfer I need to require at a that layer that level,that is layer to level hardware resolutions. Once it is done, the packet is forwarded orswitched from to the next hop. So, with these let us conclude our this present lecture andwe will continue with this discussion in the subsequent lectures.Thank you.

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