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Module 1: Módulo 1: Introdução à Gestão de Operações

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In Operations Management we consider planning and control issues in manufacturing and services.

Challenges to modern manufacturers

Changing market conditions
Rate of change is faster
Global competition
Need to be proactive
Increased customer focus
Changing market conditions

Markets conditions have changed from being a sellers market to being a buyers market.

Typical characteristics shared by today's customers

Customers are more demanding.
Customers are less loyal to brands.

In order to satisfy customer demand for greater variety in products Mid-volume, Mid-variety manufacturing was introduced.

The following are requirements of manufacturing

Increase variety of products
Have shorter lead times
Have smaller runs
Ensure flawless quality
Introduce new technology
Automate existing technology


Recommendations made by Skinner (1985)

Keep schedules flexible
Keep inventories low
Keep capital costs minimal
Keep work force contented

Manufacturing schedules must be kept flexible as demand for a product may rapidly increase or decrease.

Manufacturing methodologies

Traditional manufacturing methodologies
Process improvement methodologies
Human resource methodologies
Information Systems and decisions methodologies

Traditional manufacturing methodologies
Line layout - Product layout; Continuous high volume production
Process layout - Batch production, Mid-volume mid-variety


Group technology is another name given to cellular layout.

In a Cellular layout each cell can be thought of as 'a factory within a factory'.

Benefits of Just In Time manufacturing
Waste elimination
Inventory reduction


The following methodologies focus on improving human resources and processes

Total Quality Management
Business Process Reengineering
ISO 9000 Certification

The following methodologies focus on improving information systems and decisions

Materials Resources Planning
Enterprise Resources Planning
Supply Chain Management



Forecasting deals with future demand for a product or service.

Qualitative methods - Forecasts generated subjectively by the forecaster.

Quantitative methods - Forecasts generated through mathematical modeling.

Time series model of forecasting
Simple Mean
Weighted Moving Average
Moving Average
Exponential Smoothing