TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
This lesson provides an overview of the range of Teaching Strategies and their respective characteristics and types of Learning Styles.
Type of learning/ Learning Styles indicates how the student responds and absorbs what is being presented during the lesson;
Identify the three types of Learning
Cite major type(s) of learning related to a specific teaching strategy.
Cite guidelines that can help the nurse in ordering the learning experience.
TYPES OF LEARNING
Three domains, or types of learning, have been identified as cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
The cognitive domain includes intellectual skills such as thinking, knowing, and understanding. When the patient stores and recalls information, he is using the cognitive domain. For example, after attending classes on the low sodium diet a patient states how salt affects the blood pressure.
The affective domain includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes, and appreciations. An example would be a patient's acceptance of having a colostomy and maintaining his self-esteem.
The psychomotor domain involves motor skills. An example would be a patient demonstrating clean technique when changing her dressing.
The range of possible teaching strategies utilized by the Nurse Teacher outlined in this unit are as follows;
Explanation or Descriptive Lecture
Printed and Audiovisual Materials
Consider the different teaching strategies during the planning stage and choose a method of teaching that is suited to the individual being taught, for the material to be learned, and for you, the teacher.
SELECTING TEACHING STRATEGIES
Whether formal or informal, teaching requires a plan or it becomes haphazard and the patient's need for information goes unattended.
Consider the content and the types of learning. The content to be taught is determined by the objectives. For example, when teaching self-care to a recently diagnosed diabetic, one of the objectives may be "Identify appropriate sites for insulin injections." This means that you must include content about body sites suitable for insulin injections. You should have some knowledge of sources for content information as a result of your own education and training.
Consider the following in matching sources of content information with a suitable strategy for the individual learner and for you, the nurse-teacher:
• A person who cannot read needs a source of content material in other than printed form. Use of games and role-play are popular and fun ways for children to learn.
• Discussion is not the best strategy for teaching a psychomotor skill. Demonstration of techniques using a practice model is an effective way of teaching someone to give an injection.
• Some people are visually oriented and learn best through seeing. Others learn best through hearing; an explanation or one-on-one discussion may be the most suited method.
• The nurse-teacher must be a competent group leader to use group discussion as a teaching strategy.
Some methods are better suited to certain learning objectives than others. A 10-year old recovering from burns as a result of playing with matches would be receptive to a comic book on personal safety; an adult burn victim could learn similar information by discussing safety measures. Use of a variety of teaching strategies aids learning.
SEQUENCING THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES
(1) Learning is facilitated when there is some personal interest. Start with something the learner has identified as a need or concern. For example, before he learns how to administer insulin to himself, an adolescent is seeking information on adjusting his lifestyle so that he can still play football.
(2) Start with what the learner knows and proceed to the unknown. If you do not know the patient's knowledge or skill level, illicit this information by asking questions or having the patient complete a form.
(3) Teach an area that is anxiety provoking first, if the learner has a high level of anxiety that can impair concentration in other areas. For example, women cannot concentrate on learning to bath her husband in bed because she is highly anxious about being able to move him and turn him in bed.
Teach an area that is anxiety provoking first, if the learner has a high level of anxiety that can impair concentration in other areas.
For example, women cannot concentrate on learning to bath her husband in bed because she is highly anxious about being able to move him and turn him in bed.
Consider the teaching strategies outlined in matching sources of content information with a suitable learning style for the individual and yourself, the nurse-teacher.
STRATEGY TYPE OF LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS
Explanation or description (for example, lecture) Cognitive • Teacher controls content and pace.
• Feedback is determined by teacher.
• May be given to individual or group.
• Encourages retention of facts.
One-on-one discussion Affective, Cognitive • Encourages participation by learner.
• Permits reinforcement and repetition at learner's level.
• Permits introduction of sensitive subjects
Answering questions Cognitive • Teacher controls most of content and pace.
• Teacher must understand question and what it means to learner.
• Can be used with individuals and groups.
• Teacher sometimes needs to confirm whether question has been answered by asking learner, "Does that answer your question?"
Demonstration Psychomotor • Often used with explanation.
• Can be used with individuals, small groups, or large groups.
• Does not permit use of equipment by learners.
Group discussion Affective, Cognitive • Learner can obtain assistance from supportive group.
• Group members learn from one another.
Practice Psychomotor • Allows repetition and immediate feedback.
• Permits "hands-on" experience.
Printed and audiovisual materials Cognitive • Forms include, books, pamphlets, films, programmed instruction, and computer learning.
• Learners can proceed at their own speed.
• Nurse-teacher can act as resource person.
• Need not be present during learning.
Role playing Affective, Cognitive • Permits expression of attitudes, values, and emotions.
• Can assist in development of communication skills.
• Involves active participation by learner.
Modeling Affective, Psychomotor Nurse sets example by attitude, psychomotor skills.
Teach the basic concepts first when there are variations or adjustments in a procedure, then proceed to the variations or adjustments. Learners may become confused if they have to consider variations and adjustments before understanding the basic concepts of a procedure. For example, teach a patient how to insert a Foley catheter before teaching him what to do if the catheter stops draining.
The role of the practical nurse varies with the situation. Practical nurses actively participate as team leaders, managers, and teachers. The traditional skills of nurses were psychomotor skills involving use of the hands. Individualizing care and communicating activities require nurses to use affective skills. Cognitive skills are required in all aspects of the nursing process. These expanded nursing roles have established new dimensions for nursing practice.