The periosteum surrounds the bone, except where the articular cartilages are located.
The periosteum is an envelope of the bone and consists mainly of dense FCT.
In fact, the periosteum may be considered the outermost portion of the
Page 2: The Osteogenic Layer
However, the periosteum has a special layer of cells immediately adjacent to the surface
of the bone.
Since this layer is able to produce bone material, it is called the osteogenic layer of the periosteum.
When a long bone is fractured or a portion of the bone is lost without
losing the periosteum, the fracture is healed by the combined action of the osteogenic
layer of the periosteum and the osteoblasts of the bone itself.
Page 3: NAVL
Associated with the periosteum are the "service tissues." These are the NAVL
(nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatics), which nourish and stimulate the
living tissues of the bone and periosteum.
Branches from the main NAVL of the body go as a unit to the bone.
This unit, the neurovascular bundle, consists of NAVL within a
common fibrous connective sheath.
Portions of these NAVL spread out through the periosteum as periosteal branches
over the outer surfaces of the bone.
Other branches penetrate through the cortex of the bone to spread out through the
medullary (or marrow) cavity. The holes through the cortex are known as the nutrient
canals. The branches are known as the nutrient branches.