The skeletal elements are made up of several types of connective tissues.
In general, connective tissues tend to connect and/or support elements.
These tissues are characterized by an extracellular material referred to as the matrix.
In the formation of the individual organs known as the bones, bone tissues
make up the main portion of each bone, on an FCT framework.
Certain bone surfaces are covered with cartilage connective tissue.
Page 2 Structure of Bone
Each bone is built around an FCT framework on which apatite crystals are
deposited in a regular order.
Apatite is a mineral, a form of calcium phosphate.
(Another mineral found in bones is calcium carbonate.)
Page 3 The Piezoelectric Effect
When compressed, the apatite crystals in bone produce a local electric current. This
phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect.
Presumably, this piezoelectric effect is produced in the bones of the lower limb during walking.
We know that tissues respond to local electric current. When walking casts are used, fractured lower members tend to heal much more rapidly than when the patient is bedridden.
Bones tend to lose mass when they are not subjected to forces as great as ordinary.
Page 3 Building up, Tearing Down and Rebuilding of Bone Tissue
The living cells of the bones are called osteocytes.
When these cells are building up bone tissue, they are called osteoblasts.
When they are tearing down bone tissue, they are called osteoclasts.
Page 4 Building up, Tearing Down and Rebuilding of Bone Tissue
The building up, tearing down, and rebuilding of bone continue
throughout the life of the individual human being.
The building and rebuilding respond specifically to the directions of force applied to
the body at that particular time.
Therefore, throughout the life of the individual, the skeleton can be remodeled and
changed continuously in reaction to applied forces.