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Module 1: Módulo 10: Os sentidos de audição, equilíbrio, olfato e paladar

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In addition to the inputs from the membranous labyrinth, various other inputs are used to continuously monitor the second-to-second posture of the human body. We have already examined the proprioceptive sense, which monitors the condition of the muscles of the body.

Various other receptors are associated with the joint capsules, the integument, etc. They indicate the precise degree of bending present in the body. A very important body sense is vision. Even when other inputs are lacking, if an individual can see his feet, he may still be able to stand and move.

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To automatically control the posture, the human nervous system has a number of special reflexes. These reflexes are coordinated through the cerebellum. The head and neck tonic reflexes orient the upper torso in relationship to the head.

Another set of reflexes does likewise for the body in general. The righting reflexes come into play when the body falls out of balance or equilibrium.

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A special set of reflexes connects the vestibular apparatus to the extraocular muscles of the eyeball. This was discussed earlier in the section on the special sense of the vision.