Parturition is the process of childbirth.
The initial phase includes dilation (stretching) of the uterine cervix. At the appropriate moment, the amniotic membranes rupture and release the amniotic fluid.
The release of amniotic fluid is followed by the passage of the fetus through the birth canal.
During this passage, the newborn makes two partial rotations to accommodate the diameters of the relaxed bony pelvis.
In the birthing process, there are several reflexes occurring at appropriate times. Natural childbirth (without anesthetics or similar devices) allows these reflexes to occur normally.
Since the uterine wall musculature is not capable of expelling the fetus by itself, the mother must learn how to utilize the abdominal wall musculature in coordination with the uterine wall musculature to effect a normal childbirth.
Tab Birth and After Birth
The head of the newborn presents itself in the perineum. If the central tendon of the perineum has not relaxed sufficiently, an episiotomy may be performed.
This procedure involves cutting the posterior margin of the vagina to prevent tearing. Proper repair of the central tendon is essential to the proper recovering of the pelvis and perineum.
After the birth of the newborn, the placenta and amniotic membranes
("afterbirth") are delivered. These are accompanied by a significant flow of blood.