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Questão 2-2

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  • Nota de Estudos
  • Rever Tópicos
    Kagoya J.
    UG
    Kagoya J.

    if you share shape instruments like needles, razor-blades with an HIV person, or direct contact with body fluids of an infected person with HIV, you can acquire AIDS.

    Kagoya J.
    UG
    Kagoya J.

    What is the early stage of HIV? First Stage: Acute HIV Infection in this stage, Most people don't know right away when they've been infected with HIV, but a short time later, they may have symptoms. This is when your body's immune system puts up a fight, typically within 2 to 6 weeks after you've gotten the virus. It's called acute retroviral syndrome or primary HIV infection. The symptoms are similar to those of other viral illnesses, and they're often compared to the flu. They typically last a week or two and then completely go away. They include: • Headache • Diarrhea • Nausea and vomiting • Fatigue •Aching muscles • Sore throat • Swollen lymph nodes •A red rash that doesn't itch, usually on your torso • Fever

    Noel W.
    MW
    Noel W.

    these include Blood transfusion with infected blood and sexual transmission are basic factors of transmission of HIV .

    Hafsah D.
    NG
    Hafsah D.

    Can animal contact hiv and aids

    Lawrence T.
    GH
    Lawrence T.

    Yes you can get HIV from contact with the blood of someone who has HIV.

    Bitrus S.
    NG
    Bitrus S.

    child of HIV positive Mother should commence ART immediately after birth.

    Zeeshan J.
    AU
    Zeeshan J.

    Diseases of nutrition Diseases of nutrition include the effects of undernutrition, prevalent in less-developed areas but present even in affluent societies, and the effects of nutritional excess. Diseases of nutritional excess Obesity, perhaps the most important nutritional disease in the United States and Europe, results usually from excessive caloric intake, although emotional, genetic, and endocrine factors may be present. Obesity predisposes one toward several serious disorders, including a state of chronic oxygen deficiency called the hypoventilation syndrome; high blood pressure; and atherosclerosis, a degenerative condition of the blood vessels that is discussed further below. Excessive intake of certain vitamins, especially vitamins A and D, can also produce disease. Vitamins A and D are both fat-soluble and tend to accumulate to toxic levels in the bodily tissues when taken in excessive quantities. Vitamin C and the B vitamins, soluble in water, are more easily metabolized or excreted and, therefore, rarely accumulate to toxic levels. Diseases of nutritional deficiency Nutritional deficiencies may take the form of inadequacies of (1) total caloric intake, (2) protein intake, or (3) certain essential nutrients such as the vitamins and, more rarely, specific amino acids (components of proteins) and fatty acids. Protein-calorie malnutrition remains prevalent in certain areas. It has been estimated that about two-thirds of the world's population has less than enough food to eat. Not only is the quantity inadequate but the quality of the food is nutritionally deficient and usually lacks protein. In deprived areas malnutrition has its greatest impact on the young. Deaths from protein-calorie malnutrition result from the failure of the child to thrive, with progressive weight loss and weakness, which in turn can lead to infection and disease, usually some form of gastrointestinal bacterial or parasitic disorder. In other circumstances adequate calories may be available, but a deficiency of protein induces a disorder known as kwashiorkor. Vitamin deficiencies, the most important forms of selective malnutrition, may arise in a variety of ways, the most common and the most important being an improper, inadequate diet. When the total caloric intake is inadequate, vitamin deficiencies may also occur, but in these circumstances the more profound lack of calories and proteins masks the lack of vitamins. Vitamin deficiencies may also be encountered despite a diet that is apparently adequate nutritionally. One source of such a deficiency, called secondary, is interference with absorption of the vitamin. Pernicious anemia is a classic example of this phenomenon. This disorder results from an autoimmune response to intrinsic factor, a substance normally found in the stomach lining with which vitamin B12 must form a complex to be absorbed. (Vitamin B12 is necessary for red cells to form properly.) The basis of pernicious anemia, then, is a lack of absorption of vitamin B12. The absence of certain digestive enzymes, as is found in pancreatic disease, can lead to the inability to digest and absorb fats and the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Impaired uptake of vitamins may be encountered in gastrointestinal diseases. Some of these diseases reduce the absorptive function of the bowel. Similarly, diseases associated with severe, prolonged vomiting may interfere with adequate absorption. Avitaminosis (vitamin lack) may be encountered when there are increased losses of vitamins such as occur with chronic severe diarrhea or excessive sweating or when there are increased requirements for vitamins during periods of rapid growth, especially during childhood and pregnancy. Fever and the endocrine disorder hyperthyroidism are two additional examples of conditions that require higher than the usual levels of vitamin intake. Unless the diet is adjusted to the increased requirements, deficiencies may develop. Lastly, artificial manipulation of the body and its natural metabolic pathways, as by certain surgical procedures or the administration of various drugs, can lead to avitaminoses. (Diseases involving deficiencies of particular vitamins are discussed in nutrition: Deficiency diseases: Vitamins.) Diseases of neuropsychiatric origin Diseases of neuropsychiatric origin afflict large segments of the population. For example, a total of about 2.8 million persons in the United States suffer from three major psychiatric diseases—schizophrenia, major depression, and mania—and three major neurological disorders—Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, and Parkinson's disease. These six conditions will be briefly reviewed here. More in-depth coverage is found in the articles mental disorder and nervous system disease. The key function of the nervous system is to collect information about the body and its external environment, process the information, and coordinate the body's responses to that information. This complex function depends on each nerve cell (neuron) receiving signals from other neurons and transmitting this input to still other neurons. This critical input and output of communication (signaling) between neurons is mediated by chemical transmitter molecules (neurotransmitters). Neurotransmitters are synthesized by nerve cells and released from one cell to another across a narrow gap between the two neurons known as the synapse. Eight different major neurotransmitters and a large number of neuropeptide molecules (which serve to modulate the effects of neurotransmitters) have been identified. Different types of nerve cells respond to different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Chemical signaling between nerve cells is rapid and precise and can occur over long distances. The precision is due to receptor molecules, which are activated following their recognition and binding of specific neurotransmitters. In some types of nerves the synapses do not possess receptors, in which case interneuronal communication is achieved by electrical transmission. In many neuropsychiatric diseases alterations in the levels of transmitter substances appear to play a major role in pathogenesis. Psychiatric diseases Mental illnesses affect the very fabric of human nature, robbing it of its various facets of personality, purposeful behaviour, abstract thinking, creativity, emotion, and mood. Those suffering from mental disorders exhibit a spectrum of symptoms depending on the severity of their disease. These diseases include obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, dementia, schizophrenia, major depression, and manic disorders. Schizophrenia in its severe form is a catastrophic mental illness that begins in adolescence or early adult life. It is relatively common, occurring in about 1 percent of the general population worldwide. Because the incidence of schizophrenia among parents, children, and siblings of patients with the disease is increased to 15 percent, it is believed that heredity plays an important role in the genesis of the disease. However, other studies suggest that nongenetic factors are also influential. The biochemical basis of the disease may be an excess of the neurotransmitter substance dopamine, as high levels of dopamine and its metabolites, as well as increased dopamine receptors, are found in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Further evidence for this hypothesis is that the drugs most effective in treating the disease are those that have a high capacity to block dopamine receptors. Pathological disturbances of mood, ranging from severe depression to manic behaviour, are common forms of mental illnesses. Severe depression is characterized by despondency, diminished interest in most or all activities, weight fluctuation not due to dieting, disruption in sleep patterns, psychomotor agitation or retardation, feelings of worthlessness, excessive quiet, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Manic behaviour involves a period in which an expansive, elevated, or irritable mood persists abnormally. During this episode symptoms such as increased talkativeness, distractibility, decreased need for sleep, inflated self-esteem, and excessive involvement in pleasurable yet risky activities may be present. Major depression is associated with decreased brain levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, and the most effective therapy consists of drugs that inhibit the breakdown of these compounds. The neurochemical alterations in mania are less clearly understood, but it is well established that drugs effective in the treatment of mania are those that antagonize dopamine and serotonin. The mechanism responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of lithium for the treatment of mania is not yet clear. Although mood disorders have a familial background, the evidence for a genetic component is not convincing. Neurological diseases The three neurological diseases considered in this section—Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, and Parkinson's disease—are age-related, and to varying degrees they manifest as deterioration of mental function that involves the loss of memory and of acquired intellectual skills. This deterioration is referred to as dementia. Because dementia can result from many causes, other features of each disease must be present before a definitive diagnosis can be made. Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, being responsible for about two-thirds of the cases of dementia in patients over 60 years of age. Women are affected twice as often as men. More rarely there are familial forms of the disease that have an early onset affecting individuals in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Alzheimer's disease is insidious in onset. Early manifestations include memory loss, temporary confusion, restlessness, poor judgment, and lethargy. A failure to retain new information and a deterioration of social relationships often ensue.

    Zachary B.
    US
    Zachary B.

    What is this question?

    Theresa T.
    GH
    Theresa T.

    HIV transmission include mother to child through child birth or breastfeeding.

    Simbararshe C.
    ZW
    Simbararshe C.

    An AIDS Education, Prevention and Care Project operates in Ranong, a small fishing town bordering on Burma and Thailand. There are large numbers of temporary fishermen, Thais and border traders including drug peddlers in the town. Many who live near the border do not speak Thai so they do not comprehend any preventative or educational messages written in Thai regarding AIDS. The Thai government has sought help from Non Government Organisations to address the spread of AIDS and HIV throughout Thailand. Free condoms and culturally appropriate educational material in both Thai and Burmese aimed at changing high-risk behaviours, are distributed by the Ministry of Health in Thailand. However, the high mobility of the traders and fisherman makes it difficult for them to access the medical facilities and gather appropriate information about AIDS and HIV in terms of preventative and counselling strategies. Overall, the strength of this program lies in the fact that it has built upon the experience gathered by other projects undertaken by the World Vision Foundation of Thailand. This has enabled the testing of educational material and the development of appropriate skills amongst staff, making best use of local resources and ensuring that the strategy is consistent with local needs.

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