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Good morning. So, today’s class is all about Classic Hollywood. We have been talking NewHollywood for quite a while, but it is very important to understand the golden age ofHollywood because it has had such far reaching influence on cinema of all parts of the world;especially on our cinema, our own classic Indian cinema. We will also be talking aboutstudio system in Hollywood. And while talking about the Golden age and Classic Hollywood,we will talk about plot and characterization in the movies of that period.Narrative structure; we have already given plenty of emphasis on narrative structure,so you are no stranger to that.And editing techniques.We will also talk about the censorship code called the Hays code,which was popularly called production code during the classic Hollywood period,and we will look at what brought about this code.Key persons for today’s lecture would be Cecil DeMille, the man behind a number ofepics, especially, most importantly “Ten commandments”.Frank Capra, “It is a wonderful Life” and many more.And William Wyler, whom films scholars, films historians believeis one of the most sophisticated filmmaker of this period. So, I am going to discussmore directors from this period, but I hope to cover these directors in today’s class.So, what was this thing called production code? There was a thing called MPPDA,Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America; which was established in 1922, headed by Will Hays,an ultra-conservative republican.And, what was it meant for? So, MPPDA was a self-regulatorytrade organization formed by Hollywood producers.And, we will talk about what brought it about,what were those factors which lead to the establishment of Hays code.By 1934, this thing was called Hays code, and Will Hays was in charge of the production code.It is widely believed that Hollywood, so-called “Golden age”, the period that we are goingto discuss today, begin with the code and ended with the code. Once the code was lifted,the Classic or Golden age of Hollywood was also over technically.Now, let us talk, we will talk about what brought about that code, but then first letus talk about, the plot, its structure and narrative in the classic Hollywood cinema.So, if you look, if you consider some of the great movies of that period Buster Keaton; we have alreadybeen talk about Buster Keaton’s “The General” and all, Charlie Chaplin’s all classics.We are still on silent cinema. So, think how things were organized in classic Hollywood period,the plotted structure. Events were organized around a basic structure.We are not talking about multiple narratives.There was a basic enigma around which events are were organized.Aristotelian plot concept was followed to the (())So, a story necessarily must have had a beginning, a middle and an end.And most importantly, this you have to remember; cause and effect relationship between events,this happens and therefore as a result of this, something happen, cause and effect.There was a disruption, there has to be a conflict. We have been talking about the importanceof having conflict in cinema, if you remember. And then, plots should move in such a waythat the conflict should be resolved and equilibrium should be restored.You can always think of more contemporary cinema, which violate all these tenants.Whatever the genre, and we will be soon discussing genre in cinema as well.The plot always offered a closure.There had to be satisfactory ending; it cannot be open ended.And this is very important, please pay attention;the ending should always have a closure with a message that would cater to the dominant ideology.Now, can you give me an example of catering to the dominant ideology?Plot should have a closure and closure should have be, shouldcater to the dominant ideology of that period.Give me an example.Student: Casablanca Student: Casablanca? Yes. And dominant ideologywas that sanctity of marriage should be upheld. “Casablanca”, he is talking about.Patriotism, nation before love; so those are the ideologies and they has to be respected and there hasto be a closure. The woman leaves with her husband, yes that is the end.The man stay back and take the responsibilities, whatever are consequences he has to face them;so catering to the dominant ideology of the period.Linearity of a structure; so, plot would alwaysbe linear and not jump back and forth in time. While you are making notes about all these,please keep in mind the new Hollywood and more avant-garde experimental cinema;how the more experimental kind of cinema violated all these conditions.It was also believed that classic Hollywood because of its linear plot structure and because of its, the creationof believable world was very close to the realism. So, we have also talked about realist cinema.So, cinema should be a realistic. And, why it was realistic; because it hada beginning like life, not exactly like life, but the way we read a book, the way we wouldread an article; it should have a beginning, middle and an end and it should have cause and effect,therefore it is real.And, also it was very important to observe temporal spatial coherence.Certain believable worlds and in a believable time;again in order to achieve the concept of verisimilitude, that is reality, as close to realism as possiblenot exactly realistic cinema, but close to reality. Therefore, you know the audiencewould be more involved; the empathy, sympathy factor should be there.So, more adhering to Aristotelian concept of plot and not the brustian concept of plot, which was like breakingof the fourth wall and forcing the audience to think that came much later.Now characters, after plot what characters are all about.So, plot should be propelledthrough the agencies of believable characters, they should be life like. And who are themost believable characters; the middle class. So, make the movie around the lives of middleclass people, a regular American family. So, Frank Capra was the master of that.“It Happened One Night”, “It is a Wonderful Life”, you think of all those movies.He even made a movie called “Meet John Doe”, now who is John Doe?An average man, an everyman.So, it is a believable character. So, characters should be well-rounded with certain traits.And it is important in a classic narrative that the central character should be the hero;and therefore believe in hero, there should a hero. A movie cannot do without hero; thereforethe creation of the so-called stardom, we need to have stars, so that we can have believable heroes.We will be talking about other aspects also; their structures, their editing techniques,etcetera of the golden age Hollywood period. But before that, let me draw your attentionto one of the most influential, the most successful and biggest show-man of that period;Cecil B. Demille, 1881 to 1959,who was possibly the first ever showman in cinema.Of course, we had D.W. Griffith also, the father of cinema but, Griffith of course was big inventor andhis contribution to cinema, especially the early stages of cinema is tremendous.But why do we think Cecil B. Demille a show-man?What does the show-man do? Who is, name someshow-man from our part of the world?Tara, who is the show-man in cinema?No. No. Give me some examples.Student: Shankar.Shankar is the show-man from Tamil cinema. Student: Yash ChopraYash Chopra is the show-man.Student: Sanjay Leela BhansaliSanjay Leela Bhansali is the show-man. Those are few, who are familiar with the cinema;especially Hindi cinema of the forties and fifties and even sixties would know that RajKapoor was also called the greater show-man of Hindi cinema. And, now what are the attributes,if we think Raj Kapoor or we never said Sathyajit ray was the show-man.So, what are, what could be the characteristic of show-man? So, Raj Kapoor is the show-man,Sanjay Leela Bhansali, Yash Chopra; what kind of filmmakers are they? Of course, they areall great filmmakers but what are their qualifications? What are their qualities?Student: Larger than life. Larger than life, grand sets, a very visibleand highly publicized kind of films; so that the idea. They are not, no believers, no adherenceto low key or off beat, low budget cinema. They believed in making cinema which was larger than life,of course; that something that appeal to the masses, they should, they shouldreach out as many people as possible. Another great show-man of the seventies and eightiesin Bollywood was someone called, Manmohan Desai who made block blusters like“Amar Akbar Anthony”, does that name sound familiar? “Amar Akbar Anthony”, “coolie”, etcetera.So, Manmohan Desai was a show-man and he was a blatant show-man. He said, “I exist notto make, you know not to bore people with realities of India and to show poverty, etcetera.I want to create a world of make believe”. And, he was a self-confessed believer in makingthat kind of cinema which we today term as escapist cinema. Most of these show-menI believe are those who adhere to making the so-called escapist cinema. Make people toforget for two and half hours or three hours their harsh realities of life.Take them to a fantasy world, to a beautiful world.Cecil B. Demille’s movies incarnate all the values of Hollywood.What Hollywood should be all about; that is what Demille believed in.His first major movie was “The Squaw Man” and it is popularly called the firstfeature length western ever made in Hollywood. And, western as you all know it is a very popular genre.The first feature length, the first full-fledged western in Hollywood was made by Cecil Demille.Which was the first ever western?“The Great Train Robbery”,which was just a ten minutes picture. Then, after that Demille made a series of patriotic films;“The Little American”, “Joan The Woman”, “Till I Come Back To You”,all made during the second decade, the twentieth century.He also made couple of comedy of manners. And, you can look at the titles of these films;“Old Wives for New”, “Do Not Change Your Husband”, “Why Change Your Wife”,those were the titles and it takes you back to the comedy of manners, to the restorationcomedy period of, when people like Wycherley William Congreve were writing the plays,way of the world, etcetera, the country wife. So, he drew inspiration from that genre; comedy of the manners.His movie “The Sign Of The Cross” is basedon a particular episode from the Bible in 1932. And then, you would soon find that hebecame a master of this genre, taking stories from that period. And this was the pre-codeperiod and the heroine Claudette Colbert, who later on starred in a hugely successfulmovie called “It Happened One Night” Clark Gable. And it was the sensational movie,a movie of epic dimension; and it was definitely a precode movie, and there are plenty of scenes,if you look at the movie and take down. Look at some of images; you will understand whatI am talking about, so it is definitely a pre-code cinema.Therefore, when we talk about pre-code and post-code Hollywood cinema, there is the huge difference.Pre-code Hollywood cinema was much more liberal and exhibitionistic in itsdepiction of sex and violence on screen; whereas, post-code became much more conservative.So, when you will watch movies by Frank Capra for example, you will understand.I mean, the other day, I was giving you an example from Hitchcock’s “Notorious”;there is a famous kiss between Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant, and there was the code which saidthat kiss cannot last for more than two seconds or three seconds on the screen.So, what he did?He shot a long kiss and then cut it in between. So, they would speak and then kiss again.So, technically they were kissing for only one or two seconds, but then that sequencelasted about thirty seconds or even more, that is an interesting story, how people wouldactually work around the code which was so dreaded.Following the Hay code; now what do you do, when you have something like Hay code andwhen you are about to lose your audience. So, Demille has directed his most popular movie“The Ten Commandments”, a religious epic. And, if you watch “The Ten Commandment”,you will find it has all the subsets of a typical Demille movie, but it the veneer of religion there.That is another way of working around the code. You give the audience whatthey are looking for, but then it tells a religious story, you see. So, you can getaway with that. The movie was produced by Paramount productions in 1923. And then,he went on to direct a couple of very big budget spectacles “King Of Kings” which is theJesus movie (1927), the first “Cleopatra” not the Taylor and Burton’s vehicle, 1934“Samson and Delilah”. Do watch “Samson and Delilah”; to understand what Cecil Demille believed in.Any comments on Cecil Demille, before we go on to discuss the studio system?Student: The technology used there for usual effects,.Yes. Mosses parting the red sea;yes so, that is what we mean when we say that he believed in big budget productions.Yes. So, yes technology, he would spend money.Student: It just something likes first Star Wars movies. Something like a path breakinglike first star war movies; before that time, the technology used in that movie was impressive.So, technically advanced movie, but then, you say that there was a formula.I am talking about Cecil B. Demille formula. And all these so-called show-man always adhere to a certain formula.So, when I talk to you about Raj Kapoor, the Raj Kapoor had a formula the underdogversus the capitalist. That something you will find in the cinema of Chaplin who was almost like his guru.Raj Kapoor blindly worshipped Charlie Chaplin; followed his style, cinematic style, most of his theme.He was called our tram, the Indian tram.If you watch the moviesof Frank Capra, there is a formula, again the little man against the system; the established, the corrupt system.Meet John Doe”, Gary Cooper’s, it is one of the best movies ever made, so watch it.All these show-men follow a formula. Demille’s formula was also,he believed in big epics, big budgets, colorful, lots of technical inventions, innovation introduced, thrown in.But, the basic formula remains the same. So, the idea was sensationalize certain elements.If you read the film history, you will understand. Apart from his apparent qualities,there was an underline formula aiming for a big success.So, let us talk about the studio system. So, MGM; it was managed by the Grand Louis B.Mayer,the man who was the force behind ‘the Oscar’ or the Academy award.Irving Thalberg was the renowned production managerwho worked for the MGM studio along with David O. Selznick.And, Thalberg and Selznick produced some of the greatest films of the period.Thalberg’s perhaps you may not be familiar with Thalberg too much; but he has been immortalized bygreat American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald in the novel called “The Last Tycoon”,which was one of the last films directed by Elia Kazan starring a very young Robert De Niroand where he played Irving Thalberg, “The last Tycoon”.The screenplay was by another great litterateur Harold Pinter, dramatist.So, MGM was the most prosperous and most prolifically studio. I mean, they have money, they hadunlimited access to resources, funds and actors,and had most of the biggest directors and stars under contract.Remember the studio system, they would have stars and directors under contract;that means, they could not work for outside studios.That is not the case today.Any one is free to work with anyone because today they have all the stars, all directors,all screenplay writers; they employ agents who will seek them, who will work for them.It is not like that they have compelled to work for particular studio, no matter how lousy the script is.But, that happened at one point. Many stars had to fight the studio system to break the control.They would exercise on their lives.MGM publicity machine,that is what they believed in;‘more stars than there are in heaven’, because they had virtually everyone under the contract.Their style which was the very common; again, that is the MGM formula.You watch even an MGM movie; you will understand, there is an always high key light.We were talking at some point; about some light, some sets are designed particularlyto make people prettier than what really they are. So, MGM believed in prettifying people.So, highlighting, high-key lighting and illuminating; so everything should be pretty.Opulent productions; no money would be spared on anything.The great Elizabeth Taylor, she made her debut with an MGM production.She was the child artist. She worked in a couple of forgettable movies,especially Jane Eyre; she was not Jane Eyre, someone else played Jane Eyre,she played the kid who dies, Helen I think, one of the orphan friends.But, then soon she got her major break with, Elizabeth Taylor first movie?She was the child star, but as a child star she made it big with,Hollywood history?“National Velvet”;“National Velvet” which was the children’s novel and very popular children’s novel, and shegot the part and then after that there was no looking back. She was one of their prime major stars.So, major genres of MGM were musicals, youare all familiar for musicals; “singing in the rain” is an MGM production.Melodrama and I am going ask you soon what melodrama;so perhaps for tomorrow’s lecture come preparedwith definition of melodrama and some good examples of melodrama, particularly from Hollywood.And they also specialized in adaptation of prestigious literary works.So, if there is a novel, if there is David Copperfield going around, then MGM would be the first to adapt itas the movie that was the idea. And, they continued the reign till 1973, after thatit seize to be a studio, but major films. There are a number of major films;“Anna Christie, “Grand Hotel”, “Anna Karenina”, and all starring who? Greta Garbo,the grand, great Greta Garbo,someone Hollywood star you should know, you should be familiar with Greta Garbo.Even “Camille”; Greta Garbo. “Good bye, Mr. Chips”,“The Wizard of OZ”, needs no introduction. “Gone with the Wind”; the ultimate, American,national epic, produced by who?David O. Selznick and directed by; you would know, Victor Flemingwho also directed “Wizard of OZ”, so Victor Fleming. So, these are the names you should be acquainted with.Student: Gone with the wind, neither had this, conclusion,There is the closure, there is the closurethat she has been left, but she is such a determined little lady, the tomorrow is another day;she is going to have him back, that is the way the novel ends.So, adaptation of the literary classics, high-key lighting, illuminating lighting, big budget, wonderful costumes,great stars; I mean the publicity missionary, they had Clark Gable of course,they have Olivia De Havilland, but Vivien Leigh was the casting hope. And, they had launcheda great publicity campaign to get the right leading lady for the particular films.And, there are all kinds of stories, if you read Hollywood history; then you will understandthat what a big drama MGM created, when he launched his search for the perfect leading lady,his Scarlett O’ Hara for this movie.Leslie Howard, Olivia De Havilland; and Leslie Howard;who played ‘Ashley Wilkes’ in the movie. So, big star cast of course, andbig budgets; look at the sets and production design; and very lavishly mountain, the burningof Atlanta, for example, if you remember that scene; it is one of the major highlight of the scene of the movie.And, we are told that Vivien Leigh arrived on the sets and David o Selznickfirst set his eyes on Vivien when Atlanta was burning, when sets were burning.And then, she looks at him and she raises her chin, she lifts her chin and her green eye; Vivienhad green eyes and Selznick says here is my Scarlett. All those, perhaps, this is true, perhaps not true;but then it makes a good story, right? When you feed this story to the eager public;who are just waiting that, who is going to be the next the greatest Scarlett O’ Hara,and when he gave them this story. Vivien Leigh was an unknown; she had justacted in a couple of British movie along with her then companion, later husband Lawrence Olivia.She was not a major star in Hollywood, but you need to create that hype.You just say that, “she just arrived when Atlanta was burning and then I looked at her and hergreen eyes and on that spot, I decided this is Scarlett O’ Hara that is the way.Now, “Gone with the Wind”, of course is the great movie based on a great novel by Margaret Mitchell.“Rebecca” directed by Hitchcock, again starring Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine.“Duel In the Sun” is an epic.The leading lady later went on tomarry David O. Selznick; Jennifer Jones and the leading man was Gregory Peck.“Spell bound” Ingrid Bergman, Gregory Peck and directed by?Hitchcock.And, it had dream elementsand surrealistic elements which are all designed by Salvador Dali; he collaborated on “Spell bound”.“A star is born”.So, those are great works by David o Selznick.Paramount, another major studio of that period founded by Adolph Zukor; as European in itsapproach as MGM was American thus the difference between two studios, most of the Paramountdirectors, technicians, etcetera, they had come from Germany. They were immigrants whowere escaping the oppressive Nazi regime. And, as in European tradition, these movieshave subtle content, although visually very brilliant. So, as suppose to MGM in your face content,these are more subtle in tone.Major films and interestingly they all starred, the great Marlene Dietrich.Directed by Joseph Von Sternberg as “Morocco”,“Shanghai Express” and “The Devil is A Woman”.Some Marx brother’s comedies; such as“Animal Crackers”, “Monkey Business” and “Duck Soup”, I am very sure “The Duck Soup”is known to some of you at least. Then, Monte Carlo and “Ninotchka”; again with theGreta Garbo directed by Ernst Lubitsch, who was another German immigrant.Warner Brothers, the only studio which was run by a family, of brothers.Jack Warner was in charge of production.They did not have as much money as MGM.And they imposed the strict code of productionand insisted that, director should spend within stipulated budget.They were never over paid their stars, unlike MGM. And, they were extremely prolific;and directors were expected to turn out at least five pictures a year.Wajrner Brother’s movies were fast paced and had a tough narrative.Today, they are known for their early gangster pictures “Public Enemy”.“I am A Fugitive from a Chain Gang” starring Paul Muni, “Little Caesar”.And some of the greatest directors of golden age of Hollywood worked for Warner Brothers;Max Reinhardt fresh from Germany, Michael Curtiz, who was also a German and Mervyn Leroy.Michael Curtiz, “Casablanca” and also the first “Mildred Pierce”.Warner brother produced the first ever talking pictures, “The Jazz Singer” starring Al Jolson.Twentieth Century Fox was still around and doing very well.Darryl F. Zanuck was the vice president.And, they had John Ford as their star director.He made “Young Mr. Lincoln”, “The Grapes of Wrath” with Henry Fonda based on a novel by Steinbeck.“How Green Was My Valley”; again based on a novel by Richard Llewellyn, a Welsh novelist.For twentieth century Fox little Shirley Temple was the most bankable stars.And, who were little Shirley Temple?A hugely popular child star; She was the money spinner of that period.It is unthinkable for us that the child, small kid can draw in those kinds of crowds, but it was the truth.She was very pretty and lovable. And, the Americans loved her as their own daughter.She starred in a spate series of very successful movies;including “Heidi” in 1937.And, she was so popular; they would inviteher to compere the Academy awards and to give away the best actress award also.And, it was, we were told that, we are told that she would often go off to sleep and her parentshave to wake her up and say “go now it is your turn, just give the best actor awardand come back and we will go home. So, she was that popular.RKO; we are recently done RKO, a great movies; a Canonical Text, “Citizen Kane”.One of its most prominent owners was Howard Hughes.Who was he?Student: The Aviator.The Aviator, thank Martin Scorsese for making all these people familiar to you.So, Leonardo Dicaprio has played Howard Hughes in “The Aviator”.And, he was one of the owners of RKO studio.There was a period when theyproduced movies with Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers”,who were they?A singing, dancing couple, a great team and great a series of musicals,starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers.And then, they were known for literary adaptations;“Little Women”, directed by the great George Cukor. Now, what is George Cukor famous for?Who was George Cukor?What has he made?This is your homework, work on George, and find outwho was Robert Towne, who was George Cukor; these are the names you should know.“Of Human bondage”, it is the novel by Somerset Maugham and “The Hunchback of Notre Dame”.Columbia pictures, another major studio of that time; founded by the dreaded, Harry Cohn.The other day, when we were talking about “The Godfather”, and the head of the horse scene;maybe I told this is, you know this is one of the inside stories, part of Hollywoodanecdotes that the producer’s role was based on Harry Cohn. Of course, nobody sent hima horses head, but he was threatened by the Mafia that he has to employ Frank Sinatra for here to eternity.Columbia picture’s major movies of that period,“Only Angels Have Wings” and “His Girl Friday” both were directed by the great Howard Hawks.And, why are we interested in Howard Hawks?He is one of the first Hollywood auteurs.The French critics of Cahier du Cinema headed by Andre Bazin, they recognized Howard Hawksas one of the most prominent directors, a true auteur of the golden age period.One is Howard Hawks and another is Hitchcock, according to the, and of course, Orson Wells.Any comments here on his studio system, on production code?All these movies are post code; “His Girl Friday”, John Ford’s movies, Howard Hawksfilms, following “Ten Commandments”, movies were under these period, movies had to adhereto the code, the production code.What would that entails? Of course, you have to cut downthe sex and violence, but what could also entails, otherwise?Student1: Ma’am it seems all of these movies sets to realize to watch sex as private,.Student2: It could be a married couple sleeping in separate beds.That is interesting.But by and large, the Hollywood producers and directors were encouragedto make those movies, which would adhere to the dominant ideology, so remember that;cater to the dominant ideology. So, if the dominant ideology tells you that all the communistare bad, then cinema necessarily must include that, that should be the closure.If the dominant ideology tells you, that you cannot show divorce on screen, then they have to show, the couplehas to be shown been married happily ever after or something like that, they lived happilyever after that kinds of scenes.And, of course language, there has to be complete controlover the kind of language that the characters would speak on screen.The new wave Hollywood changed all that.But then we will discuss all that, when we go to discuss the new countercultureAmerican cinema and new Hollywood cinema.Frank Capra and he is the man who embodied the all American values, he is credited for that,so (1897 to1991).Capra was the Sicilian immigrant andColumbia’s star director.His movies are now called fantasies of good will, the feel good pictures.He won the Academy awards three times for best direction.Some of his early films were comedies, but thensoon he settled down in the role of preacher of American values; the core values of theAmerican values and he became their spokesman.His movies now are remembered for their sentimental, utopian and populist themes.What do you understand by Utopian populist themes?Again, catering to the dominant ideology. And when do film makers become populist?Trying to reach out to the masses, as many people as possible, giving the public what it wants.So, now, again I will come to our show-man Manmohan Desai, who made a movie “Amar Akbar Anthony”;and there is the scene where, it is the lost and found formula.Manmohan Desai had perfected the art, the formula, lost and found. In every movie of his,in the first reel families would scattered, in the last reel they would all reunited.Now, the hero invariably Amitabh Bachchan, the mother invariably Nirupa Roy, the father invariablyPrann or someone similar to that, and they would all come together and live happily ever after.Heroines were not much importance they were just like props; they will come, sing,love interest, look pretty and disappear. And, at the end they would come like nicedaughter- in-laws of a middle class Indian family. So, there is a closure.Families disperse and they unite and now then families are completed; becausethere are daughters-in-law as well, an appropriate kind of daughter-in-law that is very important.I mean Deewar one of our greatest melodramas.The bad girl is killed off, although there is an attempt to marryher off to the rebellious son but she killed off, and good girl becomes the daughter-in-law of the family.That was very important. So, giving the public what it wants, catering to the dominant of ideology.Because, the bad girl who smokes and drinks and have dubious morals,you cannot show her living happily after; she deserves to be punished, some wayor the other, that our populist cinema, melodramatic and populist.So, this is what Frank Capra believed in populist, melodramatic, utterly sentimental.Most of his films had the theme of a lone folksy hero of a small town, so it is a wonderful life.And that hero overcoming corrupt forces, politicians. Who are the corrupt people?Politicians, lawyers, bankers; these are the corrupt people and city sophisticates.So, city people are always bad, so our Raj Kapoor and other great directors of that per