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Intertextuality and The Blade Runner (1982)

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Good morning, we start with intertextuality, continue rather with intertextuality; will be talking about Blade runner Ridley Scott’s movie. We have been talking about this film earlier also. But, before I go head long into the film also want you to do an exercise. Please make a list of your all-time favourit movies, any ten films ten actors male or female and ten directors. This is an exercise and going to give you five minutes for this. Please, all of us need to know what we are watching good films, good actors, good directors could be even technicians if you are that aware of films. So, I am asking you actors, let’s put films first more important, directors make a list. What do you watch? Write down, write it down; it will you know, once you will write your thought process becomes much more clear, so your top ten favourit films, favourite directorsor any technicians, actors. It could be from any part of the world, we are not just talkingabout those which are may know only in English language.All right we will begin. Azhar?I have less than 5 directors; ((Refer Prof))Truffaut and Kiarostami Hitchcock, and John Abraham.John Abraham you know, which john Abraham we are talking about?Student: Malayalam.Yes, John Abraham; a highly respected Malayali director, he also acted in a few movies, you know that?Even in Hindi movies there is a movie called movie called ‘Uski Roti’a Hindi movie in which john Abraham acted as well. Newly, I know this because I studiedat FTII film and television institute Pune. So, we are exposed to that kind of cinema. Good.Actors, would you like to add to that? No preferences? Movies?Student: Okay, I not down specific movies of these directors. Truffaut’s the 400 blows,Okay fine then get up and get an idea. Anyone at the back? Yes, youStudent: I really like Pulp fiction. Tarantino, Tarantino is a pattern here, andChristopher Nolan is another pattern that those expected answers. Yes.Student: There is a Hindi movie called ‘Taare Zameen par’ Amir Khan. And there is a recentmovie called ‘Burfi’.I am told Burfi is a, yesStudent: copied from most of other films.Yes but, not an inter-textual.There is no intertextuality going on there, there is lot of plagiarism. Pulp fiction is an inter-textual film,it is a direct quotation. Yes please,Student: There is a movie called October sky and The Usual Suspects.Good, yes in the blue t-shirt.Student: Kramer vs. Kramer, Kramer vs. KramerStudent: Adaptation Yeah ‘Adaptation’ Kaufman brothers’Student: ‘Lock, stock and two smoking barrels’ by Guy Ritchie.Guy Ritchie is another perennial favourite of IIT’s.Student: Dark knight, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?Have you watched the movie, ‘Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?’ Is there anyone, anyoneelse who was watch the movie; Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? You, and you.Let’s have a screening of a movie. So, Ranjith is going to send you a list soon. You?Student: ‘The count of Monte Cristo’ The new one, Guy Pearce’s?Student: Both, I like both, and ‘V for Vendetta’. V for vendetta, yes who directed it?Does anyone remember? Students: Wachowski brothersThey were brothers once; now they are brother and sister, there is another kind of x going on here.Student: I like Watchman, Seven Samurai, and lotYeah, basically talking about action cinema here. Yes, Vedhanth.Student: Sean Connery,I did not get the first name. Student: Sean Connery, Christian Bale, Tome HardyHave you watched Tom Hardy’s ‘The Fighter’, the fighter is a very good movie; watch itif you have it not done so already. The fighter, I am so sorry, ‘The Warrior’ yes; thewarrior where he play again is a boxing movie. ‘The Fighter’ is Christian Bale and Mark Wahlberganother excellent movie yes. Yes, who else?At the back, yes you last bench.Yes, I am talking to you, movies let’s talk about of your favourite movies.I am sure you have a list.Student: Yeah, ‘Dark knight’, Dark Knight Rises. What about you? YesStudent: I like the movie ‘The good the bad an ugly’Yes it is spaghetti western. Student: ApocalyptoMel Gibson, yes. How many of you watched Coppola’s ‘Apocalypse now’?Quite a few, please watch it. It is a difficult movie to teach as well as difficult movie to screen in a class.It is an uncut version just goes on and on and perhaps some of you may not havethe patience and also the time to sit through it while doing it if you do it for screening.But, please watch it at home ‘Apocalypse now’. And another movie I keep on talkingabout very often that is ‘Once upon a time in America’ Sergio Leone’s; four and half hoursI have the uncut the DVD, the original not pirated and it is a great movie.It is a great movie, you will every time you watch it, you will learn something new about;it fantastic I do not have the words talk about it. But, we will be discussing the movie Ihope that you watch it; otherwise give your wish list to Ranjith, please be more involved in class room activitiesYou know, I ask you to send you list, send Ranjith a listof key concepts; Ranjith is going to send you a list with all yours names and schedule,who is going to do and what presentation. So, just send your key concept that you wantto talk about, and also list of films that you would like to like like us to screen andthen we talk about those films. Okay Vijji? Please do that.What about you? Actors, let’s have an actor’s list from him.Student: Jim Carrey, Leonardo DiCaprio. Yeah, Yeah, I really like Jim Carrey, yesterdaythere was showing and telecasting Liar Liar; one of my you know it’s one of the feel good movies,do not sneak it is a good, fantastic. I love it.Student: And Rowan Atkinson. Rowan, this guy likes comedies. Yes,Rowan Atkinson why not; yes, he can still pull it off ‘Johnny English re-born’.Student: Morgan freeman Morgan freeman, suddenly you get very serious now.Student: Jackie Chan.Jackie Chan, yes there is a pattern here. Ranjith?Student: List of movies, Requiem for a dream, Eternal sunshine of spotless mind,the rocky horror picture show, Brazil, Monty Python’s Life of Brian, Snatch of Guy Ritchies,The shining Kubrick’s, The clockwork orange and Halloween.Serious cinema, really cerebral. What about you Rehan? Let’s have your actors.Student: Actors I have note down three, John Goodman, Paul Giamatti and ((Refer Prof),Okay, all coined, arty types. Do you have the list of directors?Student: I have Scorsese, Coen Brothers, Coppola, Tarantino and Hitchcock.Okay, very main stream Hollywood, Good. Anyone else who would like to share? Swetha, Tara, pleases.Student: My list mostly has Tamil and Hindi cinemas.I like Nagesh Kukunoor, Vishal Bhardwaj and Mani Ratnam. And in the movies, I have put down,Kannathil Muthamittal, Hazaaron khwaishein Aisi, Panchatantram, Rang De Basanti.Okay, interesting, very nice. Tara would you like to share? Actors’ at least?Anyone else please, Viji? At least Viji watches movies, she can tell us about that. What about you?Yes yes. What is your name? Aravind? Yes.Student: Kevin Spacey, Liam Neeson, andI am fan of of Tarantino’s Reservoir dogs, Kill Bill and Nolan’s Sci-fi films.Anyone else who would like to share? Yes please, I come to you, yes in the black t shirt, what is your name?Student: Abishek.AbhishekStudents: I would like to share the actors.Amitab Bachan, Edward Norton, Brad Pit, ((Refer Prof)), Jodie Foster.All very well-known; yes, mainstream, good. Student: Directors I just would like to add,Sidney Lumet and Clint Eastwood. Yes Sidney Lumet is very important.Have we done anything by Sidney Lumet this class? ‘Dog Day Afternoon’. Sidney Lumet's Twelve angry menand also Dog Day Afternoon, so another very very acclaimed director. So, fine I understandit is more or less predictable list. But, good thanks. Now we know what we are watching.So, a good exercise would be, most I feel that most of you are into main stream very well-known films,but keeps as we talk about films in the class; keep at least try watching other films also.For example, Harold and Harold Maude, it is very very charming and interestingmovie but people just get put off. Why? Because, it is a love story between an eighty year oldwoman played with Ruth Gordon and twenty year old boy and it is not a platonic relationship.You would think, it is a love story and clean love story but, it is not, it is not that clean love story.So, it was a critical, commercial disasterwhen it first released. Who directed it, do you remember?He was a wonderful film maker, one of the pioneers of the so called‘Counterculture cinema’; the new wave Hollywood.Have I ever spoken to you about the new? I mean all these actors and all these greatdirectors are products of new wave Hollywood.The New Hollywood.Harold and Maude was directed by someone called Hal Ashby.The movie was such a disaster after that his career was more or less over but, now the film is regardedas a cult film. Remember, that the other day we were talking about the cult, intertextualityand how movies acquire a cult status? A commercial failure, the critical failure but today people watch it.Do you remember Ranjith when Shimit Amin was with us in 2010 for our workshop,he taught us the movie by way of its screenplay, Harold and Maude. Shimit is a great,one of the best contemporary directors; Chuck de India, Ab tak chappan and Rocket sing.So, he was with us in 2010 and his taught, gave us you know workshop on screenplay writingand discussed Harold and Maude threadbare. It was a very, it is an interesting movie howeverwe are talking about intertextuality; cult status again let me tell you the Blade runnerwas not great success when it was first released, even today if you watch it you will miss outon several aspects of the film, we do not know what is happening here. But, today is cult classic.The cults have as we were talking about the other day of loyal following,at the time of release they may or may not necessarily receive a very popular reception;and by popular reception I do not mean, the commercial reception but also critical reception.Harold and Maude was just ribbed apart, trash like anything,but today it is a classic, people revisit the movie.Coming to counterculture cinema, I am extremely interested in that film,that aspect and also New Hollywood. Can you give me some examples of Hollywood film makers?Do not say Scorsese and Coppola, I know that you know Scorseseand I know that you know the Godfather and therefore, you know Francis Ford Coppola.Who are the other names? I mean, we just talked about lesser known guys Hel Ashby.Woody Allen has become very main stream now, watch his more recent that ‘Midnight in Paris’.Now, he works only with big stars Penelope Cruz and. Please do I am very sure you havewatched because of its music, another great movie of that period ‘Easy Rider’, fantastic movie.When I do counterculture cinema, I am going to refer to all these; but please come havingwatch the movie, you need to Harold and Maude. Who director Easy Rider?Well, he was a well-known actor you should know; he was the villain in Speed.Dennis Hopper, Dennis hopper also did a part in Apocalypse now,he is the he is the American photographer.Easy Rider was jointly written by Peter Fonda and Jane Fonda brother yes and Dennis Hopper.China town, another great movie,please please please watch all these movies.Okay, they are essential I mean; there no fun in doing the course like film studies,if you do not know these are; I mean of course Tarantino is great, Coppola is great and weknow Scorsese and Gay Ritchie, Christopher Nolan of course, also know these people, alsoknow who stared, acted and worked as a technicians on these films, so it is important to knowSo, we were talking about intertextuality.Cult, I have already talked about.We were talking about three major aspects of Blade Runnerand the postmodernist elements in the Blade Runner; I will be doing modernism andpost modernism as well but, start thinking along those lines. What is post modernism?What is modernism? So city speaks, we were talking about in our last session also.The kind of the language people speak and you just saw a clipping; staccato, non-sequitur,coining of original words, all these because it’s Philip. K. Dick’s style of course,but, then also Ridley Scott added his own touches to the dialogues.The Tyrell Corporation centralised, autocratic, completely in control, insisting on conformities;what does it tell you? It is a critique of US itself ok a huge conglomerate which isout to take control over everything, otherwise it expects replicants; that means people whowere confirm you know those assembly line products. People who will take orders meeklyand quietly and confirm and they can be eliminated any time at the corporations will.So, that was nothing but a critique of the way the US functions. And remember all these wordschildren of the Vietnam generation; the writers, directors, people like Philip k Dick.They were extremely critical of US' intervention in other countries foreign policies.Its expansionist tendencies.So, the films like Blade runner, they were like a response to US’s expansionist tendencies.And of course, it anticipates Regan’s era as well; whichwas steady in accesses too much power, too much capitalism and ruthlessness in dealingwith people and any voice of descent.Did you get time to watch Blade runner during the week end?Did you? Okay any comments you would like to make about the film?You want to say something?Student: Population, citizen of the city are consisted of various traditions like Japanese, Chinese, MexicansIt is a melting pot, a multi-cultural-society.What kind of rain is that, is it a very is it a very cleansing, purifying?No, why do you shake your head? Why do you think it is not?Student: Because in Seven movie also it is shown like that.Good. So, we can draw parallel between the rain in seven and in Blade runner.So, rain usually associates with purifying and cleansing.It is not is not the same situation same case in these two movies.It is like raining poison, raining acid. Yes, pleaseStudent: It is not actual rain, it is very dark, an artificial rain.Sense of dystopic society. It is always almost like Matrixwhich is another kind of artificial lightness, lightings right.If you are on the topic of lights, if you are interested in cinematography please please watch The Godfather;if you have not already watched, watch the movie please watch it all over again,just to look at the way the movie begins. It is a wonderful movie, the way the screenplay is writtenCoppola collaborated on a screenplay also, although it is so very pulpysalacious novel by Mario Puzo, but the movie, this is one exception where the film is muchbetter than the novel. Usually, we say the film does not live up to the original novelbut Coppola made the Godfather hero. And the second part with the De Niro playing the youngerversion, it is not there in the novel, it is all Coppola’s inventions, let's forget the third part, for the time being.But, two great movies not bad at all;and after that he could make Apocalypse now, so of course that so three movies are enoughto keep any director alive, so minus.There is also a movie called ‘the conversation’.Remember?By Coppola, Gene Hackman, the conversations please watch the movie, it is all about;good, and you’re into Coppola.Student: John Cazale, I watched in few movies. He acted in only three or four movies.John Cazale, he is talking about the guy who is with Al Pacino in Dog Day Afternoon, remembered?He is one of the robbers, the more eccentric.Yes, he is the brother in Godfather, in yes he is the guy who gets kill Al Pacino’s cabin.You have not watched Godfather? Please watch it.And of course, John Cazale he acted only in couple of movies; as he rightly pointed out, The Deer Hunter.So, city-speak in the Blade Runner. Cities are tower of Babel, peopleare people are pony lords, people speaks too many languages. So, street jargons comprisesSpanish, French, German, Chinese, Japanese and English; is the lingua franca, the standard way.And then you have vernacular Chinese and Japanese for the pretty entrepreneurs,we just saw, a scene where Harrison Ford is trying to eat his noodles with the pair chopsticks.So, he is talking to those because that is the vernacular language, but, butfor the elites it is English. And code-switching creole and Esper, the way, you know creole;the corrupted form of language and Espar, Espar is the scientifically developed language codified.So the talking computer network especial accessible only to the elite and the specialist.So, plenty of languages existing in the, that is that also one example of intertextuality.We are going to look at another concept called pastiche.So, Tyrell Corporation you get to see this name very often; it is like your big brotheris watching, it is always there that mentioned in big bold letters throughout.There is also a huge tower like a structure; okay almost like raising about the entire city scape,taking control over the city, is that kind of construction. And the building is one mile high,it is a reference to Frank Lloyd Wright’s skyscraper project; those of you interestedin urbanisation and cities they should know, there use to be a guy called Frank Lloyd Wright.Of course, what is that novel based on; Ayn Rand’s ‘The Fountainhead’, watch the fountain head.See and never ask you to read anything in this course, right. I keep askingto watch movies, you will not find better teacher no, watch movies. So, watch The Fountainhead,do not read the novel watch the movies with Gary Cooper.And the novel is based on an architect,real life architect Frank Lloyd Wright, he embarked on a unfinished project which was which wascalled popularly a skyscraper project; it was supposedly one mile height but it never got over.In the movie but, we get to see such a building. Okay, again it is a referenceto something which I was happening, so pastiche, inter-textual reference. So when we talk aboutthese things, we assume that we are talking to a set of audience who is in the know, thatis the idea of pastiche, intertextuality. Plagiarism bangs on the idea that, peopleare not aware of these things the original, so there is stupid.Intertextuality on the other hand assumes that the audience is aware of theseand therefore; we are we are talking to an intelligent audience, a well-informed audience thus the idea.The replicants; Tyrell Corporation is involved in the construction or manufacturing of the replicants,use for the defence programs; again a critique of US’s military policies.Tyrell corporation also uses these replicants for political killings and handling nuclearmaterial and they also deal in sub specialisation, like the eye maker you know, eye shop.So, when we talked about, when I was introducing the film to you I said, eye is an important motif in the movie.The movie opens with close up shot of an eye and then you also have thecharacter of eye maker, there is an eye shop, indicating assembly line production, Fordism, etc.So, what was the intention now? Philip K Dick’s, I am sure some of you are intowatching science fiction; so ‘A Scanner Darkly’, if you have not please watch it.Are you aware of this movie, A Scanner Darkl, people at the back? A Scanner Darkly, basedon Philip K Dick’s novel, please watch it. You will have Kevin Spacey again, you do haveKeanu Reeves of course, but you also have Kevin Spacey as far as I can remember,it is a multi-star, very good, excellent ensemble cast but it is headed by Keanu Reevesbut there are many more, very well recognised actors. Please watch it, I want you to watchit for the technique here; Scanner Darkly, I not giving the game away right now againbased Philip K Dick’s novel but beautifully made.So, the idea and this is a recurringidea in all Philip K Dick’s novels; a moral question arises from the possibility that,human beings might be retired by the mistake. So, human beings can be retired by mistake,that means replicants which can be retired at will that is eliminated and the idea is that;Tyrell Corporation has the authority, the moral right to eliminate people by mistake,‘by mistaken’ that is quote unquote but, absolute power and absolute control over the people.And in that scene we just watched, there is the test to identify replicants wherepeople can be retired at choice, at will. Because to the certain time, if you respondto the certain kind of test, you are in if do not your out. So, that is the kind of society,a dystopic version of society that is being talked about. So, it not just random sciencefiction we are talking about; its something which is very dangerous, which can happeningin the society and which is happening to a large extent around, a certain kind of peopleare eliminated while certain type of people are considered good enough and they should be nurtured.Whereas, certain people are not wanted and they should be eliminated and thereis an allegory here, all right. So, read the novel if you want, watch A Scanner Darklyalso the movie Blade Runner, wonderful movie, and I am sure If you are a fan of science fictionthen you will enjoyed it. Coming back again a concept of intertextuality, just wanted to,today I was giving a thought of I was watching couple of movies and I thought ofGregory Peck; the great actor Gregory Peck who acted in Herman Melville’s ‘Moby Dick’.Herman Melville is the novelist and his novel Moby Dick was made into a movie in 1956.Gregory Peck played the lead role Captain, Ahab in the original version Moby Dick.I think it was directed by John Huston. The movie was has been remade several times but, there was verypopular remake in 1998 also, starring Patrick Stewart; the Star Trek guy.Now, why are we talking about intertextuality? I am not just talking about remake now.Gregory Peck, now in 1998, how old do you think he much have been? In his 80’s, so the great star nowin his eighty’s definitely he cannot play a fifty year old Captain Ahab.But, the filmmakers in the remade version wanted to pay homage to the original version.And what they do? There is a character called father Mapple in Moby Dick, he just appearsfor a while in the novel, in the movie and now our grand old man, Gregory Peck playsfathers Mapple's role in the 1998 version. What are the filmmakers doing? Quoting the original,you do not need the Gregory Peck in that small role but you bring him back, it is inter textual reference;that is you will see Captain Ahab lives on, he is a very much a part of this movie.A Homage to Gregory Peck and the John Huston version of the movie.Another excellent example of intertextuality is Cape Fear.How many of you are familiar with Cape Fear here, Scorsese fan all over so?Cape Fear, no one else; very strange, please please watch,make it essential watching, essential viewing. Cape Fear at least a Scorsese’s version (1991).Nick Nolte, Gregory Peck, Juliette Lewis, Jessica Lange.Robert De Niro plays the dreaded Cape, so a Cape Fear. Now the original was made in 1962, starringGregory Peck in the role which was later played by Nick Nolte in his Scorsese’s version andRobert Mitchum and Robert Mitchum's role was played by; he is an anti-hero, played by De Niro,De Niro has a menacing presence, so you can well imagine. Mitchum too had a menacing presenceso that role was played by Robert De Niro in Scorsese' version.Now, why are we talking about that, what is the story of Cape Fear all about?Let’s have the focus on our friend, he knows the movie.Student: So, the Robert De Niro plays a criminal, and Nick Nolte plays his defence lawyer. Andafter Robert De Niro get sent to Jail, after he gets out of jail, he tries to take a revengesort with lawyer for not defending by manipulating, so he stalks his family and the family.So, Robert De Niro stalks Nolte’s family, and the family is in very vulnerable position.There is a young daughter, there is beautiful attractive wife played by Jessica Lange.And originally this criminal he has been accused of raping a minor and he says his attorney did not putin an enough effort in defending him and rescuing him. And he ends up in jail for fourteen yearsor so, something like that. He comes out; harden, brutalised and full of revenge.He has his body tattooed with images of justice and quotation from bible and all over, and‘he vengeances me and become vengeance’, he keeps on shouting throughout the film.Okay, now he is a menacing presence in the movie; he starts stalking his attorney’swife and young daughter. And in a chilling scene he stalks Juliette Lewis, a very youngJuliette Lewis, I think that was her debut. She is fourteen or fifteen in the movie andhe does not do anything to her but, you get a sense that he is about to.And they sit and discuss erotic novels, particularly by Henry Miller’s Tropic of Capricorn all those.And the climax is very gruesome, very violent, very brutal, typical action thriller.But, why are we now talking, why are we talking about inter-textual element in the movie at all?Why are we talking about intertextuality at all? Now, we have RobertMitchum and Gregory Peck in the original version, in the remade version we have Nick Nolte and De Niro,fine but the filmmaker; and Martin Scorsese happens to be a great cinephile,we were also talking about the way he has been doing restoration of old movies; remember,Technicolor, Eastmancolor and all those things? He is involved in rescuing cinema fromcinematical reels from great classics from disintegrations. So, he is he, if you readupon Martin Scorsese, you will realise that he is a ((Refer Prof)) (40:42), he is thehe is the walking encyclopaedia of cinema. Why he wants to do this now? He brings Gregory Peckand Robert Mitchum again his version of Cape Fear. Now, these are two grand oldman in their 80's and what do they do here? There not cops, they defence attorneys;one prosecutes De Niro, another one defence him.So, bringing those two great actors,I mean anyone else could have done very well, but why bring only Mitchum and Peck; a Homage,very obvious inter-textual reference to the original classic. Martin Scorsese saying,look I am not plagiarising; I know that you know that I am remaking the classic and let’snot forget that we have people here. These people are here, this is my acknowledgementof the classic that is what intertextuality is does so, as opposed to blatant plagiarism.Comments, questions, observations please, if you can think of something similar.Please, Rehan.Student: So, here we have just, both the case are just bringing back the actors of paying homage,is it actually intertextuality or are we intertextuality is taking ideas?Absolutely there is an idea, so they are butthey are quite blatant now, and being very in your face and taking the idea is on official remake.But, I am also you know perhaps rubbing it in that looks it there. So, it is a goodexample of; I am just giving you these two good example from very accessible films andvery well-known actors, these things are done. So, ideas yes, songs yes inclusion of songs,inclusion of certain costumes; you gave me the example Kill Bill, Kill Bill wearing,the bride wearing Bruce Lees’ costume, intertextuality. It is not a blatant plagiarism.You know the movie, you know the Bruce Lee; you know the Tarantino is an aficionado of those Chineseand Japanese martial arts films. He is paying homage; you have to know that, you have toknow where he comes from, that is what is happening, so it can be in anyway.Inter-textual reference in in an animated film like Shrek, how many are there; too manyto count, too many to count; ‘Shrek’ especially the first version. There is a scene where,what is her name, the princess? Fiona is rescuing her ogre, what is his name? Shrek the oger.And in a matrix like scene, remember? She is, she defies gravity while she fights thebunch of ruffians; and then you that the homage, that is the inter-textual reference to ‘Matrix’,Carrie-Anne Moss doing the same.Student: Characters themselves are moving right,Absolutely,Student: There are taking from various perennials, the countries gone far and far.And they all you know pinoquio at one point and Gingerbread man running all over places.So, that is all, you need to know it is the filmmakers want you to know that; I know youknow this people, I treat you on par with me, I am not dummying you down.I know that you know that is intertextuality; plagiarism is dummying you down. Intertextuality capitaliseon the fact that you are on par with the filmmaker, you are an informed audience, you know whatI am talking about, you know that the this is Gregory Peck; and you know why I want himin father Mapple’s role. You know this is Gregory Peck and Mitchum, and you know whyI want them in Cape Fear, I can have anyone in this role; I can have Schwarzenegger playing attorney,why not I can have Bruce Willis? No, I want only Peck and Mitchum’s combination,coming together for second and last time. Not, just homage, not just a fan paying homagebut also very strong inter-textual reference, eludes to the original classic.Anything that you can think of? I am not talking spoof. See, let’s not confusethe spoof, a Shrek is not a spoof. Shrek is a, people have done work, written scholarlypapers on Shrek as an inter-textual; full of, Rupert Everett’s character charming,is actually an illusion to the guy who own Disney, the studio.Student: Ma’am what about schools like scare movies and all that reference to movies like Scream.There are done to evoke, to evoke what?Laughter.‘Johnny English’ is a spoof on Bond movies, all these espionage movies.Student: Ma’am is spoof is parody?See, parody is a serious business we are going talk about it.In literature, parody Linda Hutcheon’s term, is a very serious.So, we use parody very lightly, it is a parody. Okay, thank you so much, bye.