Video 1: Concept of Goods Movement
Okay. We have created a purchase order at the next, what will happen is the goods receipts. So we are waiting for the goods, receipt, goods receipt, clearly it's part of inventory management and inventory management. We talk about movements, goods movements that could be goods, receipt, like goods receipt for production order for purchase order or any other source that could be internal movements like. Transfer postings or like stock transfer, where we transport our stock from one storage location to the other. And that could be good issue into consumption for scrapping, for orders, for deliveries and so on. Whenever V move good. It's around whenever we move material, we have to post the movement. Nothing happens in SAP simply by changing the numbers, you have to post a document and this goods, movement documents here, as an example, goods receipt for a purchase order is defined by so-called movement types. So in the goods movements, you have a movement type. You don't have to know that number. SAP suggests that, but it's good to know the concept behind it because it's a very detailed. And very thorough concept, um, to make sure that all that movements work exactly the way you want it to have. You can customize the functionality of that numbers. If something gets in trouble from a purchase order into your stock, you usually use movement type one Oh one. Again, you don't have to know that as a pin knows that if something gets in from your vendor and you doubt about you have doubts about the quality of that. Of course, you cannot reject that product and then no movement takes place, but if you want to take it in and you want to make sure it gets done, who blocked stock so it can get inspected. The movement type would be one or three. If you at least something from block stock, that would be one Oh five. If you want to send something back to the vendor, that would be one 22. Okay. So all these movement types are used and you have hundreds of other movement types for each and every movement type. What is valid here is that the movement types usually are uneven numbers at the next higher than even number one. Number of higher is the return movement type for that. So if. I get something in with, um, movement type one Oh one. And then I find out I accidentally posted the wrong purchase order that is not yet delivered. It was a different purchase order and they used, accidentally the wrong purchase order. What can I do? You can never delete any documents in SAP. You can console that. And for constellation you, um, you use the next higher movement type. Like one or two concerts, one Oh one, one Oh four concerts, one or three. And so on. As you see here, that return to vendor is a consolation in itself. It was taken in here. And with that, you can console that with, okay. Turn delivery a reason. So this is not to be used. If you accidentally use the wrong purchase, order entered the wrong purchase order number. This is to be used. If some issues appear with the material and you want to send it back to the vendor. Okay. Not everything. It's not everything about goods, receipts. We have many more movement types. And here you have a very short list of hundreds of movement type that is only an except of that list going on. There's one interesting differentiation between stock transfer and transfer posting. A stock transfer, transports something from one plant to the other or from one storage location to the other. So it's a physical movement while a transfer posting may be a physical movement, but first of all, it is a change of, um, of a stock type of the material or a change of the material itself. So you may have a quantity of material with a certain number and you may. Accidentally have defined another material number for the same material. And now you want to put that both together after you found that out. So we have to post the quantity of material one into material two. You can do this with a transfer posting, no movement involved. Simply you redefine your quantity to belong to a different material, or you post something from a blocked stock to anonymous take that stock like quality inspection stock to analyst elected or Conzie nation to understand that stock, um, that are changes in stock type that you have going on. Um, Goods movement has several consequences in the system. So they may be up documents. You post the goods receipt, for example, that updates the purchase order history that may print out goods, receipts, slips that may create an accounting document. If that is evaluated stock that you receive, of course, an accounting document is posted in the background. Data coming from the material master to do that. And if you use modules like warehouse management, the goods receipt could be followed by a transfer order for the forklift driver to bring it exactly to the storage bin, where it belongs to. If you use quality management with the goods, receipt, and inspection, a lot could have been created for that material. So all that may happen in the background here. Okay. The documents that are posted are material documents and accounting documents, as you have seen. And we will have a closer look to that when we come to SAP now.
Video 2: Goods Receipt Purchase Order in SAP
Okay. We are back at the SAP system and now we wait for the goods receipt of the purchase order. We've just created when we work in at the landing dock where the trucks and delivery events getting, and you receive your deliveries, you usually work with a transaction. M I G Oh, like Mico, this transaction. Can be set up to do any material movement you want here. It's already. Okay. We are a goods receipt for purchase orders, but that could be returned delivery, constellations, goods, issues, transfer, posting, and so on and so on. And even if it's a goods receipt that could be for purchase orders for material documents for inbound deliveries, for transports or anything else. Okay. In our case, that was correct. So the system expects to get the purchase order number right here, we enter that purchase number, a purchase order number, where does it come from? It comes from the delivery papers. Our vendor has to print the purchase order number on the delivery papers, otherwise working at the lending dock. We had no idea which purchase order that belongs to. Once we have that number, we enter that. We also enter the delivery note number, which may be any number because it's a number, uh, that our vendor has assigned to that document. So I make up a number right now, like one, two, three, and so on system needs to have a number. Here we go on by clicking enter. The system reads the purchase audit finds out that still 4,500 out to be delivered. If you already had received a partial delivery, we would only see the missing quantity here. Down here. We have details to that item. If the purchase order had multiple items, we would see a list of that items and be second C I D uh, details for each of these items down here. So we can check the material of the material text. We can check the quantity. We can check where it shall go, which storage location it shall go. We can look up the purchase order data. We can even open the purchase order from here, but just double clicking on that. If I do that, the system opens the purchase order. Like we have it here. This is the purchase order. It's only to be displayed. I cannot change anything going back now being sure it's the correct purchase order. I am at the. M I G O transaction again, we can check the vendor and so on and so on. And finally, after having checked everything and finding that the delivery is correct, we can check this item. Okay. We have to do that because the system made up all the information and if it just saved it, um, there would be, it could be that way. Um, that'd be do that, um, without having checked the delivery. So if we have to assign that item, okay, now we can save it. I do that. I post the delivery, like for all documents in SAP, SAP delivers in number down here, but you don't have to write down that number. There are ways to always find out about that, um, documents now, goods receipt. Took place.
Video 3: Document and Stock Overview Transaction in SAP
Let's have a look at the documentary of just posted document number is still visible down here. We change this transaction to display a document we're going here. We can do that said display the system automatically knows it's about a material document and it suggests the last posted document number, which is exactly what we've just created. So we can open that. Now we see that document exactly the way we have entered it. We have posted it. Uh, but as you already know, but the slide deck, this is not the only document we have financial documents coming with that. To see that financial document, you go to the tap document info. It was not there before. When we posted the ghost receipt, it was not there. Document info here it is. Who posted it? When was it posted? What was the day? Um, which transaction code? Well as transaction M I G O but we sent it to goods receipt. So this is also visible here and here you have the finance or documents that were posted in the background. I go there and as you'll see, in our case, we have three documents, an accounting document, a profit center document. And the special purpose ledger document profit center document and purchase ledger, a special purchase lecture document, or optional. It depends on the setup of your company. You can use profit center accounting, which is a part of controlling in SAP, and then you can assign materials to certain profit centers. So whenever you move that material, The profit center is also accountant. You can use special purpose ledger for global companies to set up. Well, let's say a balance sheet that covers all of your company and does not follow the rules of a certain country. So maybe an internal balance sheet. There are several reasons to do that, but the one document that must be posted here is the accounting document. Of course, this is a local documents since we work with our system in Germany. That will be posted following the German accounting rules. If I get in there a double click on that document. Now, if I get in there, we open that document and you see two different accounts are posted. The inventory account for raw material is posted, which is correct because it's a screw that's raw material and it's posted with a certain amount and. The goods receipt, invoice receipt clearing account is posted. Why is that? You always need two accounts for financial postings. One is a credit and one is a debit line. And that document inventory document that is clear. Inventory account. That's clear to follow up with the changes of the value of your, of your inventory, but what's the opposing account. Couldn't that be the vendor because sooner or later the vendor will get the money? Well, the vendor hasn't set in sent in an invoice yet, so it is not a good business. To post that on the vendor account before even having an invoice. So we use goods, receipt, invoice, receipt, clearing account. Okay. Same amount in both accounts, the account assignment shows the purchase order number and the item number of that purchase order. And that's the document that was posted in the bank. I go back from here. I closed that again and I leave the Migo transaction. Now, did we really receive that quantity? We are with inventory management and there must be a transaction to see the stock level of our inventory. Yeah, there are several transactions to do that. One. Transaction is a transaction where you can look up one material in great detail. It's M M B E. There are other transactions to look up multiple materials in a storage location. Let's use MNB because we want to look up our screw. I get in here. That's a start screen of that, um, a transaction and it already defaults the material we have. Handled the system. We kind of look up that material now, a plant, we could even delete the plant. So if we see that in any plant that we have here and in any MRP area that is here for that reason, we delete all the limiting selections. If you have fields on the way, like from two, you can enter. A single value, then it will only be looked up in that plant that was entered here. You can look, you can enter a lower and a higher value, and then you see it in all the plants that are in that range or you'll leave it blank. And then you see it in all plants, all storage location, all batches of that material, if it is batch handled and so on. So this is what we have here since always. A selection that allows you to select everything by leaving it blank is a little bit dangerous because of you could cause long running reports that take a very long time to select the data. Therefore, the enter screen, doesn't open that report. You have to click the execute button here. I do that. And after a while I see we have that material in handbook. Here, you'll see the organizational structure of our company, client company code, plant storage location. It continues with batch and special stock, which are no organizational levels, but down to the storage location, these are organizational levels. So at the client level, We have 5,627 of that screws in the company code best run Germany. We have 5,627. So this has been no other, the company called in plant handbook, which is the plant 1000, your fault. That was in 627. And in the plant building, we have 1000 in Hamburg. This material is to be found in the storage location. Zero is the whole one. Well, uh, with a high quantity and we've just posted the goods receipt to that. So the quantity is that high, there are 77 screws in the stores, locations dealers, your two, and there are 10 screws in zero, zero 88 in buildOn. That all is in the same storage location. So you can look up your material and you can clearly see that our goods receipt worked and popped up.
Video 4: Invoice Verification in SAP
Next step of, uh, after having posted the goods receipt, the invoice gets in invoice. Verification happens in SAP. That invoice is checked against the prices maintained with the purchase order and against the quantities posted or the goods receipt. Small differences may be tolerated. You can set up the system tolerances the way you like. And then the invoice will not be blocked, but if the tolerances are too high, a blocking appears so that you can take in the invoice, you can post the invoice, but you do not pay it before that is cleared. So you have a blocked invoice. Otherwise, if you had no tolerances, there is no blocking. And the invoice will be paid by an automatic payment program. They're not talking about that automatic program here. But that would be the next step that gets in here. No, let's go to SAP and open the transaction. M I R O it's similar to M I G O it looks even similar. Um, this is a transaction to take in an invoice. And it's meant as to be a logistic transaction in SAP. That's interesting. Um, it doesn't matter who handles that it could be accounts payable that handles tray in such actions, or it could be accounting personal, but SAP. Has placed that transaction in logistic venues because it checks logistic, um, um, documents like purchase orders and goods, receipts, and so on. That's where SAP says that belongs to. So now we have that, um, invoice, of course, in our example system, we have imprinted in invoice, but now let's assume we have that invoice in front of us. The invoice has an invoice date. Let's assume that today, as I already said, you can enter dates as a six digit number. Let's then assume the invoices and invoice number. So I make up my fantasy and enter a fantasy invoice number in the invoice. You'll find an image and you have to enter the blind SAP will not suggest any amounts here. So that would be the amount and this amount includes tax. So it's the pay as an amount to be paid. So you check on calculate tax. Okay. Now we enter the purchase order that, uh, uh, Shelby invoiced, the purchase order number should be visible on the invoice. Otherwise you could not enter it here. Then you have the system checking that. And you'll find out the value. What you have, what you have purchased is 2,160, including the tax. It's exactly the amount that you read on the invoice. So the balance is zero and it's green. Even if the balance were not zero, let's say they said it's not 40 cent as a deseamos, but zero. And we have that checked. Now you have 40 cent here, but it's still green invoice will not be blocked. It's getting cheaper for it. Why not? But it could as well getting more expensive. So it's 50, or that would be too much. It's a 2,571. Let's check that it's still green. Now we are 60 cent over that. What's the tolerance here. Well, if we, uh, would enter, uh, 2,578, that should be too much. Yup. It turns red now the tolerance, um, that's not Lama. I've covered that. Okay. I go back to something that is covered by the, um, by the tolerance and no, we can post that invoice before you post that invoice. You don't have to check anything here or you, you simply can do that and you can look at the simulation. So you see which accounts will be posted again. If I click on simulate, I see that account. I see the account, um, that is assigned to my, to my vendor. I see the goods receipt, invoice receipt clearing account that is cleared. I have a tax account and an office, small differences account, small price loss, because it was too expensive since, um, the small price loss is calculated without taxes. It's only 50 cent even good. The balance is 67. The rest is in the Texas system. Does that very well and clearly knows what it does. Okay. We can post the document. We can do that from here, or we can post it up here, but therefore we had to close that pop up. So we posted from here, the symbol is the same and do that. Now we should receive a number here. It'd be half a document number again, you don't have to memorize that document because you can find out about that document number whenever you want. Let's look at that. If I open the purchase order, there's a transaction to do that. We did not do that manually until now. We always used MDs zero four, but the purchase order is not visible in MDs four anymore. Let me show that to you. I get in here. Oops. And to plant, yes, I have to do that. Um, if I get in here. We have a stock of 5,000 and some, which is correct, and we don't have the purchase order anymore because the purchase order has done its job and we have received the quantity purchased. So the purchase order has no meaningful the future, uh, quantities of that material. It's not showing up an MRP anymore, but getting out of here, we can look up the purchase order over the transaction, M E 23 and. That's a transaction code. It opens with the last purchase order we have handled. And that was our purchase order. If we want to see a different purchase order, you can change the purchase order number here, of course. But for the moment we are fine with that. Now you've seen the purchase order already when we created the purchase or whatever. You have all the details on the item and here you have a tab that you have not seen before because it simply wasn't there it's purchase order history that tap appears only if there is a purchase order history. I'd go there. And now you see, we have a good story seat and we have an invoice receipt. There's our German abbreviations. I'm sorry. SAP is a German software. Okay, so we have it all here. And since you have underlined that numbers, meaning these numbers are links. I can go there. I can check up the goods receipt. This is the goods receipt we have already seen. Can go back here and I can check up the invoice receipt. This is the invoice receipt, so I have it all together. As a document flow vac here, everything is fine. Purchasing is done. I leave that transaction and that was it for purchasing.