Loading
Nota de Estudos
Study Reminders
Support
Text Version

Set your study reminders

We will email you at these times to remind you to study.
  • Monday

    -

    7am

    +

    Tuesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Wednesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Thursday

    -

    7am

    +

    Friday

    -

    7am

    +

    Saturday

    -

    7am

    +

    Sunday

    -

    7am

    +

Video 1: Purchasing Concepts
Next we want to talk about is purchasing. Okay. Going there. You see, uh, that purchasing is a process on its own. So you basically know that already requirements may come from sales orders or may come from some secondary requirements or reservations from plant orders or production orders. Going through material requirement, planning, material requirement planning, we'll create a purchase order for purchase products. And if the source is defined, source determination has an easy job. To put a source to that purchase acquisition. And then you can turn that directly into a purchase order source determination. It takes, uh, takes place with info records and source lists. Or there may even be a contract or a scheduling agreement where of course the vendor is in the head of data. So that should be easy for the system. If you have a source for a material, if not, you can use request for quotation or inquiries, you can take in the quotations coming back from different vendors and create a purchase order out of that. Of course, what you need to have. Is a vendor master data like this one after a purchase order exists, there may be some steps in between where you ask your vendor to confirm the receipt of the purchase order, where you ask your vendor for advanced shipping notifications. Also, this is optional. We can directly go to the goods receipt on an hour, a test system that we have here. We will exactly do that after goods receipt. And we are able to receive the invoice and we can check that invoice against the quantities of the goods receipt and against the prices maintained in the purchase order. But you can have done that automatically. If you have scanner based systems that interface to SAP, you can do that manually. Whatever works for you. Okay. So this is basically the path we are going here. We are not using contracts or scheduling agreements that may simplify that task if you have that. But the purchase order is the standard method. To get something to continue. We have a vendor master record. This is very similar to a customer master record. So we have a section that sits on the global level. It sits on the client level that contains general data like addresses names, like the number of that vendor. We have company code data, which defines that vendor as a finance account. It's an account payable, of course, con payable account using the same account number that the vendor has as a vendor number. And of course the vendor has to be defined for purchasing, using purchasing organization, data conditions, um, contacts and so on and so on. And a vendor also has partner functions very similar to a customer. As well partner functions that could be the vendor who, um, who is used per se to create a purchase order. It could be an ordering address. It could be a good supplier that is different from the vendor. It could be an invoice presenter who sends the invoice to us, but it's not our vendor and so on and so on. And you can maintain your own partner functions in customizing very similar to, um, to sales and customer. Okay here, we have different processes that can be done with, uh, purchase orders. First mode. We have stock material process. There's a material, there's a process. We are just in, in our case, we already have a purchase requisition coming out of an MRP run. If your material were defined for both purchasing and in-house production, the system always creates a plant order. And then you can turn that plant order into a purchase like position. And then you also have a purchase requisition since the other way is not working. You cannot turn a purchase acquisition into a plant order in cases where you have both a procurement methods available for a material, the system has to create plant orders. So we are free to change them into purchase like position or to handle them as planned orders and turn them into production orders. Okay. Now a case that was not. Um, that was not, um, necessary because it's clear that that screw is a purchased item. So we can change. We can turn that purchase requisition into a purchase order and a standard purchase order that leads to a goods receipt into valuated stock, and then may lead to invoice verification and to all the financial stuff, vendor open item payment, and so on, um, that has. An item, category blank and account assignment category is also blank. So the item, the purchase order item defines which path it is going. We could use purchasing for subcontracting. We have a purchase requisition. We skip that first one for the materials that are both. Um, to be purchased or to be, uh, produced. Um, if you have a purchase requisition that is turned into a purchase order with the item category L that means it's a subcontracting item. Subcontracting is if you send something out to a vendor to be finished, for example, to be assembled or to be painted or to be coated or whatever. So if you have black items that you want to get back in a red color, You have to send out these blank items before. So you have a bill of material for that, that define all the items that you have to send to the vendor could be that the vendor has to assemble something, but it could be multiple items. What you will receive is the assembled or painted or coated material. Now coming back using a different material number. So you're sent out materials of one material number and you get back the finished material. But another material number, invoice verification, vendor, open item that's standard down here. There could be external processing. Um, that's interesting. XLR processing means that in your production, you have some steps done by vendors. This is very similar to subcontracting only. It's not triggered by a purchase requisition, but it is triggered by. A task in a task list in a routing of your production. If that task is to be done, a purchase order is automatically created here. We again have the item category L because it's kind of subcontracting, but now we have an account assignment category of F because the production order is the costing element. So this is not put into stock simply. Yeah. This is put into evaluated stock. So this is a substitute foreign, uh, for an accounting, for a costing element here. We don't have that, but we have a production audit and the production audit takes the costs of that. Purchasing process. So we have a goods receipt for the finished goods. After we have sent out the not finished goods, the components, if invoice verification of that, we could use third party processes. Third party means that we. Um, that'd be order something at one of our, of our vendors. And we ask the vendor to deliver it directly to our customer. We've seen the same process in sales. This is basically the purchasing part of their process. We have seen that in sales, it uses the item category S no accounting category, because this is value added material, which is directly sold before it even touches our inventory. Of course, there's a way to, um, to purchase consumable materials, for example, office materials, um, your, uh, paper stock for your, for your printers and what you have. Okay. This is usually a manual purchase requisition. Could be that you have a system different from SAP that interfaces into SAP and creates purchase, like positions here so that you have catalog based systems for office supplies, um, or you entered that manually. Okay. That purchasing acquisition, maybe, um, maybe, uh, um, turned into a purchase order. It has certain. Item categories and account, um, assignment. Excuse me. I didn't want to go there account assignment categories, meaning it could be that you buy something for your cost center, then it would be a K. It could be that you buy something for all the, it could be that you buy something for assets. So you have different account assignment categories here. Okay. Otherwise that works the same way for like the standard order. You have a good street seat. Only this time, Gris seat is not into evaluated stock, but it's into consumption. Directly. Material is consumed the very moment. The goods receipt takes place. You have an invoice verification and so on. That's basically the same year. So you have different processes that you can do, uh, with your purchase order. And as for account assignment categories and item categories. We can look into that a little bit closer here. You have the item categories like consignment, third-party subcontracting. You have service items. You may even have text items with no goods, receipt, no invoice, simply a text to be sent to your vendor as one of the items of your purchase order, uh, rarely ever used, but the others. All use and you have the counter assignment categories like you account, uh, and you, you post something on an asset, on a sales order, on a production or internal order on a cost center and so on and so on, even unknown as a category here. Okay. We also have contracts and scheduling agreements with purchasing very similar to sales. Only this time. It's vice versa. It's incoming instead of outgoing, but the strategies, other things, a contract is a contract with a validity period and you sent contract release purchase orders. Okay. You may have a scheduling agreement where MRP directly can create scheduled blinds instead of purchase requisitions, which may a little bit easier if you have that, because you skip the step of creating a purchase requisition. Another relevant master data for purchasing is the source list. Here it is described which vendor is allowed to be used for which material it's based on a plant. So for each plant, the source list could look different and it's based on timeframes. Like you have validity times. For certain vendor material, uh, locations. If you only have one vendor for a certain material at a certain time, this is basically a fixed vendor. You may enter multiple vendors. So you have a list to select from, Oh, you do not even read it. Limit the number of vendors except off. You never want to have it from vendor C that you can block that vendor. But now it's enough of the theory. Let's get to SAP.

Video 2: Purchase Order Processing in SAP
So back to SAP, let's convert our purchase acquisition into a purchase order. And guess which transaction we're going to use? Yes. M D zero four, one of the most widely used transactions. It's very convenient to do that with this transaction, uh, because whenever you work with a single material, This works very, very well. If it comes to converting multiple purchase acquisitions into purchase orders, of course, in the purchasing area of the system, you have other transactions to do that. But here we can look up our material, hexagon head screw. Like we have seen that before we see the stock quantity that we have. We see the safety stock and now we also see our newly created purchase requisition, which shell, uh, by 4,500 of that screws. Okay. You're not going to change that in any way, but we will turn that into a purchase order. And this is very, very easy. If you're in the MDs or all four, you can double click on each of these items. And then you get a tiny box that is special for that item category, like purchase requisition. Um, so it has certain bottoms that you can use to do stuff for that, like turning it into a purchase order. This is exactly what we're going to do. We turned that into a purchase order. Now the transaction for purchase orders is opened automatically. We have a list of purchase requisitions to be turned into purchase order. And in our very, very simple case, we only have one purchase requisition. This is the number of the purchase acquisition that we've already seen in the last screen. Here we have, uh, still empty purchase water. Well, it's not exactly empty up here on the head of doctor. We see our vendor it's P Q Germany. Um, okay. So we have a vendor, um, assigned to it, and now we can buy that at this vendor. How to do that. Very simple. You simply drag and drop. So you click this with the left mouse button, keep the left mouse button pressed down and, and, uh, pull that to the shopping cart that you see above here, here, you will release the left mouse button, drag and drop. And now. But purchase audit is prepared. It's not yet saved as you already know, you have to save that kind of stuff. But first let's have a look. This is one of the newer transactions in SAP. SAP is an old system. It dates back to the seventies of the last century and some transactions still look like that, but this is a modernized transaction. So you have. Header data up here. Item overview. If there are multiple items here and item details down here, and now you can select whether you want to see item details or whether you want to see header details. Now I've opened the header. If there's not enough space to show all of that SAP automatically will collapse some details here. I'm in the head of data and look at the organizational data I could as well. Look at the address for example, or I could look at the partners that are involved here, like the ordering address and the vendor, you see partners take more space. So the item details were collapsed. I could open the item details again. So the header is collapsed. Um, and now I have. I have taps up here. I could look up the delivery schedule. We have one date where we want to have that with a delivery schedule. We even have the purchase requisition mentioned here. So the assignment per purchase requisition to purchase order is always available. Material data. We can look this one up. We could look up quantities and weights. You could look up for example, the pricing conditions, because the system found a price of 48 Euro cents pairs, a pair screw. If we go in here, we see that price and those prices not effected by any rebates or something. I think we may pull the cash discount if you pay early enough. So the actual price. It's even a reduced by 3%. So it's even cheaper. Okay. At the item level, we can also look up, um, material data. We can also look up the delivery address, where to bring it to, this is the address of our plant and handbook. Uh, we can look up, um, well account assignments. If there were an account. This is stock material. There is no account assignment, at least no account assignment that is in any way relevant to us. Okay. There could be certain texts maintained. Like what kind of material is it? Um, all that goes to the purchase order, of course now, in order to keep that purchase order, we have to save it. So I click that save button. On then the system should give me a number down here. We have that purchase order number. Okay. Going back to the M D zero four transaction and go back here. I am at the end. These are for transaction. Go in again. Now I have a purchase order in here. As you see, this is a purchase order number. The purchasing position is gone. It's not deleted from the system, but since the purchase order is more relevant than the purchase requisition. And it is about the same quantity. The system has no need to show the purchase requisition anymore. Now we handle the purchase order and here we always find our purchase order number is also good to do that. Okay. I leave that transaction, go back to the, um, to the easy access menu. And that was the creation of a purchase order.