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Module 1: Design Guidelines for Pedestrian and Cycling Facilities

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Design of Cycling Infrastructure

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So in this lecture, we'll be looking at the different principles just as we had several principles of NMT infrastructure that we had looked at. Now we'll specifically look at principles for. Uh, designing bicycle infrastructure, and also look at some of the cross-sectional design elements. These are all based on IRC 11, which was released in 2015. So in designing for a bicycle facilities, we have to, again, keep in mind that we are not only dealing with bicycles. We are also dealing with rickshaws cycle lectures. Cycled cards, hand, put hand pulled cards, et cetera. So there are different types of vehicles are non-motorized, uh, uh, bicycles that we are dealing with. Not only the ones that are adult tutoring, but they may be, uh, uh, luggage attached to it. Uh, that kind of, uh, uh, uh, bicycle, there may be a cycle rickshaw that we are talking about maybe cycle. Cards and hand pulled cards. So all of this combined, uh, together, uh, forms D uh, design principles for, uh, cyclists, cyclists, and then it is also, the design is also based on which type of road we are designing it for the hierarchy of the roads in the transportation network matters in this case, whether it's an arterial arterial, whether it is a local street. So it matters on which street we are. Uh, designing the bicycle network, the five basic principles to keep in mind while designing for a cycle. Infrastructure is coherence, directness, safety, and security, attractiveness, and comfort. Right? Many of these are very similar to, uh, what we had looked at it, uh, when we were trying to design or when we were designing. Uh, pedestrian infrastructure, where they had to be safe, secured, they had to attract there, be attractive, or they had to, uh, uh, attract the people, Chinese users, uh, to using this facility. They have to be comfortable. It has to be direct, uh, should avoid detours and so on and so forth. Right. And the other thing that, uh, IRC recommends is that we designed facilities so that our speed of at least of anywhere between five to 15 kilometers per hour can be maintained on such facilities. Right. If it is too low, then it, uh, the bicyclist will be, uh, discouraged from using such facilities. And if it is too high, then there might be some safety to progressions for bicyclists. We will, uh, you have already, uh, maybe looked at, uh, such bicycle lanes, uh, which are also now available in few cities in India. Uh, bicycle boxes, especially, uh, are something that are coming up, which allows you to, uh, uh, which allow the bicycles to come up out to the front and right next to the, uh, in the front of the intersection, uh, so that when the signal turns green, the bicyclists are the first people. Who can leave the intersection, uh, safely. And you must have also encountered some public bicycle sharing systems in your cities, uh, which may be, which allow you to not own a bicycle, but still use the bicycle by renting them at an hourly basis. And the rents are usually very cheap. So as per the IRC guidelines, uh, there are some standard dimensions for different types of. Uh, bicycles, uh, IRC defines four different types of bicycles. Uh, first one is an adult touring bicycle. Second one is an adult touring bicycle with goods. Next one is an addiction and next one is there. The last one is a good structure, so it defines four different classes of bicycles. And for each, uh, each class of bicycle, it has some standard clearances and wits. So, if you just look at one of them, uh, you would say that the first one, uh, capital w is the width of the cycle itself. So when you're, when we look at the width of the cycle for different classes, the cycle, it ranges from anywhere between seven 50 meters as sound 50 millimeters to about a 1.4 meters. So that is the range of with tougher cycles. The next one, small air is a clearance from obstacles, uh, which are very close to the bicycle, uh, anywhere between zero to 50, 50 millimeters of it. So this is eight, right? So you have to have some, you have to have no obstacles, uh, where your pedal essentially where your pedaling zone is, right. If you're peddling zone, if you have any obstacles, then you will not be able to pedal very smoothly. So that is. Uh, what , uh, what it represents B is the clearance zone from obstacles anywhere beyond 50. Mm. But less than one 50 a month. So that is B. Okay. So anywhere between, uh, beyond 50, mm, less than 50, a one 50. Mm. C is clearance from fixed obstacles, like bowls and bollocks. So you will have to have your poles and bollards at least a few. Millimeters away from the bicycles. So again like you remember bicyclists usually prefer to ride on the edge of the roads. So as you ride closer and closer to the edge of the road, many of the street furniture also comes very close to you. But a safe design is to have a basic clearance from. Your street furniture or fixed obstacles like poles and bullets, and D is the final, uh, clearance is D which is clearance from any kind of closed walls. Right? So all of these values of ABC and D and for different types of, uh, cycles are shown in this chart. These are again, based on IRC 11, 20, 15. The next element in designing for a bicycle infrastructure or cycling infrastructure along urban streets is to look at the turning radius of the bicycle track or the shared use. Part of whichever you are trying to design bends. They should be smooth connections between cycling parts. And ensure continued, right? These bends that you're often trying to design, they depend upon the turning radius. You would be coming at a certain speed and would be wanting to continue at the same speed, but Ben's always restrict the speed by a certain amount. So by how much amount should they be restricting? Uh, so on and so forth. Depends upon the. Turning radius that you provide sharpen the bend, the lower would be the speed, the more Sharpie provide, but it is recommended that the minimum design speed of 12 kilometers per hour be maintained at all Benz. Right. If a cyclist traveling at 12 kilometers per hour comes at a bend, he or she should be able to negotiate the wind at that speed. So it is preferred the D. The turning radius of 30 meter Morris provided, which also ensures that visual, directness and continuity of the parties maintain. So this person should be after negotiating the bench should be able to visually see. And also the part would be continuous radius of less than 10 meters should not be considered as it does not permit cycling at a comfortable closing speed. Right. So these are some principles you have to keep in mind while you were designing qual turning radius suffer bicycle. So if you look at the turning radius and it's basic, uh, physics principles, what happens is the weight of the bicycle. Plus rider is coming downwards. There is some sort of a friction with the road, so that friction is given by a coefficient of friction times. Uh, w w which is nothing but mg. So Fs times mg is the friction. So the radius at the turn, if you provide art, and if the bicycle speed is V so the direction to the ground has two components. This R has two components cost our cost data and our scientists, our cost data counterbalances the weight, right? Our cost data. Counterbalances the weight, whereas our scientists and the friction access the center better force. What was the bicycle turns? So our scientist is nothing but M squared, uh, MV squared by R plus you have friction, which you already know us F a STEM mg. So if you divide two by one, Dante is equal to, you would get. So if we divide the question two, by question one, you will get 20 as equal to B squared by RG plus Fs. Are, if you solve for V you will realize that the maximum speed at a bend that a cyclist can maintain depends upon the radius that is provided at that, uh, at that bend. Right? Uh, and there should be sufficient friction that. Uh, allows the bicyclist to negotiate that ban and ensures that he or she does not skid at that. Right. So, uh, maximum is the maximum speed at which the bicycle can turn without skidding. So VMX is the maximum speed that is given by the square root of our times, G times 10 data minus F S. So IRC 11 suggests that the value should be 0.3. Well, we should have friction of pine tree. Tita should not be more than 18 degrees. So people should not, uh, be bending for more than 18 degrees and a widening of about 0.5. One meter per lane is required to accommodate the extra wit on account of this bedding. So at the bend, the, uh, cycle track is widened by at least 0.5, one meters in order to. Accommodate for that speed. Speed. Okay. Uh, in case of bicycle lanes, usually super elevation is not necessary, just, uh, uh, as opposed to when you are providing for, uh, uh, turning radius for motorized Lakers. So what elevation may be required, but in this cases, super elevation is not the quiet. So, if you look at a quick, uh, problem, uh, then you would understand how to determine the maximum speed. Uh, so if you are asked to determine the maximum speed, which is required for a bicycle to make a safe turn without skidding for a turn reading, turning radius of 30 meters, utilizing all the information given in IRC 11. So all the information, meaning all these. Values. Right. So if you use all this, also, you have to comment if this speed is good for operation and discuss a way for its improvement. So let us see what is the result of this, uh, uh, maximum speed based on a 30 meter, uh, turning radius. So, you know, already the formula for it. Um, Uh, if, if, if, uh, IRC suggests a Fs value of 0.3 and the Tita of, uh, 18 degrees and you have, uh, uh, you already know that the turning radius is, uh, 30 meters. Oh, turning radius is 30 meters. Um, and G is 9.8. Uh, this should be, uh, 30 meters, uh, and G is 9.81. So, if you're putting these values, you will get a maximum speed of 21.17 meters per second. So in your, in your, uh, comments and discussion section, what you can write is cruising speed of a bicycle, uh, is usually anywhere between 18 to 20 kilometers per hour. Remember when we were, if you go back a few slides we had, uh, told us, we had told you that, uh, at least. Uh, at least anywhere between five to 15, uh, speed is required and also a minimum design speed at Ben's should be at least 12 kilometers per hour. So here, what we are seeing is that for negotiating anywhere between 15 to 20 kilometers per hour, uh, and maintaining this speed of 15 kilometers, the radius that should be provided if you use the same formula and. Find out the radius, uh, for maintaining a 15 minute, uh, a 15 kilometer per hour speed, you will see that such a high radius usually is required 922 meters of radius. So that's large turning radius may not be available at urban roads. So usually such large turning radius is not available. Hence the speed at the, uh, Ben's should be lowered a little bit while you work. Uh, approaching a bed. So that is the discussion that you have to have right now. The next thing design element to remember is when you encounter any inclines or slopes. So it is very, uh, as it involves a lot of physical activity in bicycling, usually bicyclists do not, uh, like to have very steep inclines of slopes. So they should be. Uh, the most desirable condition is to avoid, uh, any level changes. But if level changes have to be made, there are some standards that are provided by IRC. If the level to be negotiated is, uh, only about one meter, then the recommended slope is anywhere between one is 12 and one is two 20. Whereas if our LV or bridge, for example, has to be negotiated, then the slopes become. Yeah, anywhere between one is two 42. One is two 60, uh, negotiating a bridge and a term, maybe unaffordable for a cyclist. Well, that becomes a problem, but, uh, uh, if the slopes are, uh, the recommended slopes are implemented, it helps the bicyclists negotiate, negotiate. Those, uh, negotiate such a, uh, rough, steep incline, but important to make the ground level. More, uh, cyclic motorcycle friendly than expecting cyclists, the two from their naturopath. So as much as possible, we have to keep her level floor or the level has to be kept as low as, uh, as level as possible. Otherwise the cyclist will have to take a detour, which means a longer distance. And if the distance keeps on increasing between the origin and destination, then bicyclist would. Not want to use the mode of transportation or the, this NMT mode of transportation and go back to using their motorized vehicles. So we want to avoid any such situation and also on a decline, junctions and obstructions should be spaced reasonably far from them bottom of the incline because cyclists need plenty of free space, the bottom, the incline to recover the speed. So usually what you will see is that. Uh, when you're coming down, people usually do not recommend a speed hump right at the bottom of the, uh, in Clyde, but a speed hump usually a little bit later on so that there is some recovery time given to the bicycle. And also next thing remember for the cross-sectional elements is because we had told you earlier that the design depends upon the type of road. You have to keep in mind for which type of road you are developing your design for the bicycle facility. It depends upon the hierarchy of the road. So if you look at four different hierarchies, arterials of arterial collector and access roads, you will see that usually the right of way of sorry. Uh, uh, uh, uh, um, uh, given here 50 to 80 meters for arterials. Whereas for access to roads, uh, the right-of-way is very, uh, less than you've ever been in six to 15 meters. And the design speed of vehicles is given here. So when you know the design speed of vehicular traffic, it becomes very, very essential to design your bicycle tracks, according to such design speeds. Otherwise they may become too unsafe for the cyclists to use their cycle on any one type of roadways. If you look at the cross sections of each of these, you would see that, uh, in, uh, in any type of arterial or sub arterial road, uh, you can have, you may have a service road, right? You may have a service road or a service lane, which may be may or may not be used for parking. Then you may have your Brown area, which may be a footpath, right? Then you have your orange cycled tracks. You may have a cycle track after the footpath. And then you may have a rebuilt, which separates the cycle tracks from the actual category, right? So you may have this type of a design. Whereas these, the alternate designs are very close to each other. Uh, in this type of design, you may have another, you may have the three belt, uh, Uh, the three belt or the swell on the left-hand side, rather than on the right hand side. And you may only have a very small, um, uh, vegetation that separates, uh, the bicycles with D uh, vehicles on the main carriageway. Uh, on the other hand, you may have a tree lane, uh, uh, on the extreme left-hand side, even the left of the, uh, uh, service lane. And you may have your. Uh, sidewalks cyclins and a little bit of vegetation, uh, between the, uh, carriageway under bicyclist. So different cross sections, uh, off roads shown for, uh, either arterial or sub arterial, uh, type of, uh, categories of roads for which you can develop your, um, are designed for your cycle tracks, right? More or less you see that the cycle track. And, uh, for, uh, the part are always most likely to be next to each other. Apart from, uh, in the last, uh, section where you see that there is no, when there is no end, there is no service lane. At that point, everything is at the left-hand side of the road. The other prototype is a collector or a distributor street in a collector cross section. You can see that. Usually you do not have any, uh, service lanes. Usually you can, at that point in time, put your design, your cycle tracks on the carriageway itself because right next to the category itself, because what happens is. The speeds along collectors or distributors streets, the average speed of vehicles is low. So the cyclists fail feel safer to ride along with the motorized vehicles when compared to, uh, arterials or sub arterials where the average speed of the traffic is very high. So they need always a separation from the traffic. Right. So that is the basic difference between. When you're designing a cycle track for a collector or a distributed street, versus when you're designing it for RTD, Laura, somebody in the street, I'll give you, you can go through each one of the different prototypes in this case. Sorry. Finally, when you're looking at a local street or an access street, Uh, it is, uh, very similar to, uh, the situation that you encounter, uh, uh, in the previous collector or distributor street where the, uh, average speed of vehicles on the right on the, um, college base. Pretty low. So you may not even have a different cycle in, right? So you see, there is no different yellow marking. Cyclins the cycles cyclists and the motorists can coexist on the same, uh, carriage way because the speeds are pretty low. So you can have it. You can have then the site, uh, vegetation part between the cyclist and the pedestrians, or you can have the pedestrians right next to the bicyclist, or you can sometimes. Which is a case in our Indian cities, many of our Indian, uh, um, access, uh, access streets of local streets. Whereas there is no, uh, sidewalk for the pedestrians as well as they are walking on the same, uh, gallery as the bicyclists and motorists. This is okay when it is deep, it it's an access road or access street or a local street because. The average speed of vehicles is low similar type of, uh, prototypes as shown for more access and local streets. Finally, when you start, uh, looking at, uh, some of the dimensions and some of the measurements for different types of. Bicycle infrastructure. So there's different types of bicycle infrastructure includes segregated cycle tracks. Cyclins if they're writing with that motorized vehicle, right. They can be any type of this. So if there are, if the number of lanes or an arterial is anywhere between six to eight lanes divided and maximum width of the car lane is three to 3.3 meter. It is always recommended that there'll be segregated cycle track. So if you're an arterial with a maximum of six to eight lanes divided, and each of the car lane bits are three to 3.3 meters at such situations, it is always recommended that you have a segregated cycle track. It usually means that the average speeds of the vehicles are very high. So the cyclists have feel unsafe riding with the traffic or with the vehicle or traffic. And hence they need it segregated, cycling, like similar to the case. So similar as the case for sub arterials, when you have about four to six lanes divided and, uh, Carlin of three to 3.3 meter, you have to have it segregated cycle time, but you see. As you start getting, uh, uh, more local and local, uh, uh, from a point of view of a distributor, a collector street, and a local or an access street where there are only two lanes or maybe even one lane of, of, of a 2.7, five to three meter, they can write with the mixed traffic or they can just have it. Cycling, this lane can be designed on the category itself and they need not have it segregated cycle track. So as the hierarchy of the, um, uh, roads decrease, Iraqi decreasing meaning average speed of vehicles on the roads, decrease your need for. Uh, segregated, separate cycle track also reduces, right? It's like let's become more and more comfortable riding with the traffic so they can ride with mixed traffic. Similarly, if you look at other design elements, other design elements, such as gradient and the width of the lanes required, if you are an arterial, which has a gradient of. Uh, one is two 12 to one is two 20 and a lane with desirable land with the offset, such a minimum of 2.2 meter, uh, for two lane track and three to four meter for shared lanes of segregated cycle tracks need to be provided. So you also have to remember how much wide cycle tracks you need in case of different types of gradient. That are available at different hierarchy of the roads, right? So when you are on a distributor, you just need a cycle. Then you can have a 1.2 meter painted on 0.2 meter painted, cycling with near an access road. You do not even need a lane because they are going to write with the mixed traffic. So I hope you have clearly understood how to design for different types of bicycle facilities based on the different roadways on which these facilities are to be provided.