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Module 1: Pedestrian and Bicycle Level of Services

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BLOS and Bicycle Compatibility Index

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In this lecture, we are going to introduce you to another form of measuring, uh, the bicycle level of service that is using bicycle compatibility index. So what we are going to tell you is, uh, in this, like that is what his bicycle compatibility index, how it is used for developing bicycle level of service and how it is different from you will then see how it is different from, uh, the highway capacity manual for developing. Bicycle level of service, what the bicycle capacity compatibility index allows you to do is it allows you to measure the bicycle operational evaluation design evaluation is also planning, so it can be used at three different phases of evaluating your bicycle, uh, facilities on the, uh, on your urban streets. It gives you an operational evaluation for existing roadways and can be evaluated to determine how the bicycle level of services present designers. On the other hand, designers can assess new roadways or roadways, which are being redesigned or retrofitted to determine if the bike, if they're bicycle compatible and for planning stages, the model provides users with a mechanism to quantitatively define and assess long range. Bicycle transportation plants. Right? So this bicycle compatibility index, uh, can be used for different times or different phases of development of bicycle facilities, uh, in the highway capacity manual method of determining BLOS. We looked at that if they must be existing bicycle, uh, facilities, uh, for which level of service can be determined using that method. But BCI. Allows you to do it for different phases of development. What it tells what essentially BCI is, it is an index. So a bicycle compatibility index reflects the comfort level of bicyclists on the basis of observed geometry surrounding land use and operational characteristics. So there are three different things that the compatibility index looks at. It looks at the geometric considerations, the surrounding land use. And also the operational characteristics of the roadway. So in, in sense, uh, in a, in a sense it is, it is taking a little bit of time. It's a holistic picture of what a bicyclist may encounter while he or she is riding a bicycle on the roadway. Right? So these are not for a dedicated share dude, a dedicated bicycle parts or shared use bicycle lanes. Uh, which, uh, pedestrians can also use. So these are, uh, purely for bicycle lanes data on the streets, right? That are, that are sharing the right of way with the, uh, other motorists on the road. What it says is that if the bicycle, the calculated index, if the bicycle BCI index or BCI index value is low, The greater will be the comfort level. So the greater is the comfort level. The better is the level of service. So you see, as the bicycle index reduces, right, reduces from 5.3 to 1.5, the level of service improves and the compatibility level also improves. So this is what essentially, we mean by bicycle compatibility index. So what essentially it is, is air. Relationship between, um, uh, the index develops a relationship between different characteristics of the traffic and, uh, area that a pedestrian may face. Right? So it is a linear, uh, simple linear recognition, uh, linear, multiple regression equation, or the model is a linear, multiple regression model. That gives you this compatibility index, which in turn determines how well or how well, uh, the comfort level of the bicyclist is when he or she is riding the bicycle on the road, on the, uh, pavement or on the street, uh, shed with other types of motorized vehicles. So if you start looking at each and every term of this, you will see that. The first term that the compatibility index depends upon is the presence of a bicycle lane or paved shoulder. If there is a presence of a bicycle lane, or also if the road has a paved shoulder, which is greater than 0.9 meter in width, then the bicycle compatibility index depends upon this factor called B L the next factor that it depends upon. Is what is called B a w a B R w is the bicycle lane or the paved shoulder wit, right. So the first variable, is it yes or no, kind of a variable. Is there a short, uh, is there a paved shoulder greater than 0.9 meter? Or is there a bicycle lane? If the answer is yes, then that will have a value of one. If the answer is no, then it will have a value of zero. So it's a yes, no kind of a. Variable dichotomous variable, whereas BLW is actually the width of the paved shoulder or the bicycle lane. So if only this is one, this can have some value. If this is zero, this cannot have any value. Right. The next thing, the next variable is what is called C L WNO CLW is the curb lane, right? So what is the curb lane? Awake the regular traffic lane that is closest to the curb, right? Because the cyclist will, uh, usually bicycle very close to the curb. So the lane that is next to the bicyclist and closest to the curb, it's called her goblin. And the width of that car blend is what plays an important role in impacting the compatibility index. The next one is their God Lynn. Volume. So width of that lane and what is the volume of traffic on that goblin next is other lane volume, all other lanes in the same direction, right? So there may be two lanes in one direction and tooling in the other direction, out of the two lanes, the first inner most lane would be there, or the outermost lane would be the goblin and the other inner lane will be there. Other lane. So the volume of traffic on that other lane is what we are worried about. And we will not be worried about that volume of the traffic in the opposite direction. The next thing is speed. So the presence, uh, again, the 85th percentile speed of traffic, you remember how to determine 85th percentile speed. We've already told you, uh, the next variable is PKG or the presence of a parking lane with more than 30% occupants. So if there is a parking lane, again, it is usually right next to the curb where the is usually bicycle. Right. But you'll see very few people, very few bicyclists trying to bicycle in the middle of the road. They would rather bicycle on the side of the road, which is alongside the curb. So if there is presence of parking, uh, in that, uh, in that segment and that parking lane is more 30% or more occupied or occupied or more than. 30% of the spaces that are filled with parked vehicles, then the variable is called a variable. PKG will be one. Otherwise it'll be zero. Again, this is a zero one type of a dichotomous variable presence of parking dead. Yes, no. So that is kind of her answer for that. The next variable is area, which is type of roadside development. If it is a residential, then the value is one. If it is others, it is. So there has been, it has been noticed that, uh, the bicyclists, uh, the comfort of bicyclists depends upon, uh, the area. If it is a residential area, they feel more comfortable versus bicycling in non-residential areas. So it has been only, uh, for simplicity sake. It has been only divided up into two such areas. Right. And the last thing is there are three different adjustment factors that have to be. Uh, taken into account and we'll see what those adjustment factors are that usually right. Turning adjustment factors, if you, uh, uh, people, uh, bicycles that that is turning right, because this is developed in the U S it is right. Uh, for, uh, for our case, it will be left. Turning vehicles are just interactive, uh, parking, adjustment factor. And, uh, I think heavy trucks, if there's heavy vehicles moving on the road, so they have to have an adjustment factor for that aspect. So. You see, uh, when we were talking about highway capacity, manual method of determining a level of service of bicycles, of dedicated bicycle lanes, they were depending upon the number of events, right? They were depending upon how many events passing events or CRA or opposing events that our bicycles meet. Whereas when we are talking about bicycle compatibility index, it depends upon a larger number of factors because these are, uh, But it's, uh, these are bicyclists that are on the right of way that are riding their bicycles on the, uh, pavement sharing, uh, with other motorized vehicles. So it takes into consideration a whole lot of factors, uh, in order to determine this compatibility index. So we have looked at all of these factors, one by one, you have to also then look at their signs in order to understand that. Impact on BCI. Right? So if it is a negative sign, meaning the bicycle compatibility index is going to decrease by the presence or absence of a bicycle, a bicycle lane. So if it goes from one to zero, that means if there are no bicycle lanes. So this is a reduction and then the bicycle compatibility index is negative sign. So it will go up. Remember the bicycle compatible index goes up. Uh, the bicycle level of service or the comfort level usually goes down. So not only do you have to, uh, determine, uh, you have to understand the sign with the compatibility index, but you have to also understand that compatible indexes relationship level of service. Okay. So you're, you're to understand both of those relationships when you're looking at the compatibility index and this linear regression equation. Uh, so here are, uh, some pictures which allows you to, uh, understand what are all the different types of, uh, different terminologies that we're, that we were looking at. So when we were talking about curb lane width, right? So if there is a curb, if there is a curb only here and the curb, uh, it is about you take about a 0.3 meter shy distance because bicyclists are, do not, will not hug the curb very closely. So when you you're determining the car blend with, it will be that width from the center line to the 2.3 meters away from the car. When there is a carbon, a gutter, then you also, you can just determine the curb lane width from the end of the gutter line to the lane. So again, see if this is a two lane road, two lanes going this way, and two lanes going the other way. So we only are worried about when we are determining the, uh, bicycle level of service for this direction, for the upper direction. We are not worried about the volume of traffic in the other direction. We are only worried about the volume of direction, the curb lane, which is this. And if you are talking about the other lanes, it will be only the other lane present. Yeah. When we are waltz also want to determine in the presence of a bicycle lane, if there is a bicycle in present, then when we are determining the curb lane with the curb lane, which would be width from the bicycle lane towards to the lane demarcation here, if there is a car only, only car present, again, the width of the bicycle lane or the paved shoulder. Should be 0.3 meters should be, uh, incorporating the 0.3 meter shy distance from the curb. Right? Uh, similarly when carbon, both Garvin gotta represent, it is just from the gutters line to the paved shoulder or the bicycle lane that will give you the vet. Now, when determining parking. If there is parking and you want to determine the curb lane with, so it is assumed if it is not Mark, right. If the parking lane is not marked, but parking is allowed along the curb, then you say that the assumed parking lane with this 2.4 meter wide, so you leave 2.4 meters and then you determine the car blend with us, uh, to be that lane, uh, that much. Whereas if it is marked. Then you already know where parking is available and that I stopped with this, the God blend with carbon, which is the most essential because the weight and the volume of vehicles on that, uh, car blend impacts the comfort levels of the bicyclist, uh, in, in a greater degree, as opposed to, uh, if there is another lane in the same direction, the volume of the vehicles on that lane. Does not usually affect because most of the bicycles usually ride along the curb and not too much along the middle of the road or the outer regularly. Similarly, if you are a determined, a car blind with when both bicycle lane and parking are present, uh, the dimensions are shown here. Once again. How do you determine, uh, the speed we have already told you in the previous lectures, 85th percentile speed is nothing but, uh, the vehicle count and the vehicles, uh, 85% of the vehicles are the speed at about which the only 15% of the vehicles are traveling that is called the 85th percentile speed. And that can be, uh, calculated in the field just by developing it. Cumulative distribution of that archive. Uh, if you don't have data available, you usually assume that, uh, the speed on the, the regular speed is 15 kilometers per hour higher than the posted speed limit, because usually the posted speed limits are on the conservative side and people, uh, drive at a higher speed than what is posted for that. So now, how do you determine. The curb lane volume and the other lane volumes, right. You know, the curb lane, uh, Caribbean wit, uh, that is, uh, that impacts, uh, the bicycle compatibility index. And you also have to calculate the other lane volume, which impacts the, uh, bicycle compatibility index. So how do you measure them ADT, if you have ADT that has to be converted into our lead traffic volume ADTs. Annual average daily traffic collected continuously for a 24 hour period. Uh, this is the best source for traffic volume information, not the only source, but, uh, sometimes, uh, it is, it is, it is the only source, but cause usually the best source of understanding what the traffic volume on that road is. So once you have the ADT, you can convert it to speak our volumes by using, uh, by using some, uh, K factor. Our conversion factor that allows you to convert, uh, the propo allows you to convert, uh, the proportion of vehicles traveling during the peak hour. Okay. Uh, you always are worried about peak hour traffic, and that is, uh, the traffic volume for which you usually design facilities or you measure any, uh, measures of effectiveness. So if you know the, uh, ADT, you multiply that with the peak or factor and the directional split. Okay, directional split is, uh, the, uh, standard values are given here, uh, 0.1 and 0.5, five, but it may be different for your street. And you can calculate that once, you know, the peak, our volume, you can then, uh, use the peak or volume to calculate the garbling volume, but just by dividing it with the number of lanes, simplistically, dividing it with the number of lanes in that direction. And if you, if you have. Uh, two, uh, if you have only two lanes, then the rest of the volume is going in the other, uh, other lane where if you have more than two lanes, then you can, uh, just sum up the other volumes to be in the other two lanes. You don't have to know individually. What is the volume of traffic in the other lanes? If the lanes are more than two, right? So you calculate those, uh, And once you know, that you can develop their compatibility index. So what happens is, uh, once you know, the compatibility index of each of these treats, then you can develop a map for your city or your region highlighting the streets that are highly com uh, extremely, uh, compatible for bicyclists, uh, and the, whereas the ones that have low compatible index, this allows you to, uh, allows your, uh, bicyclists. And gives them, uh, gives them an idea of where to bicycle based on their own comfort levels. Right? This is for an average bicyclist, we are talking about, uh, there may be bicyclists who are, uh, very young versus the bicyclists who are. Uh, very professionally, uh, good at bicycling. So their, their compatibility index may be different, but this is for overall average bicycle by average bicyclists. Uh, this also allows you to understand where the weak links are, how, how you can improve the compatibility, uh, index or the comfort level for an average bicyclist and work in that. So this is a very handy tool for your local urban local bodies. Are your public works department in order to improve? Uh, whenever they are either improving, uh, the travel lanes and they wanted to put in a bicycle lane, uh, they can easily assess how the compatibility index will improve if, uh, if you were to, uh, solve a problem, uh, you can see that, uh, uh, shown in these two pictures are, uh, multi-lane two lanes in each direction, wide Curlin arterial that serves. Commuting bicycle corridor, right? It serves both the commuters and the community bicycle corridor. The curb lane width is measured from the center of the lane line to the gutter pan seam and is 4.3 meters. The ADT is 15,000 vehicles. Speed limit posted. Is this the siren? And a study shows that the 85th percentile speed is however 75 kilometers per hour. As indicated there's no on-street parking and the development along the roadside primarily consists of retail and commercial businesses, right? They're mostly retail and commercial businesses or no residential and consider that the adjustment factors are, so there are no heavy vehicles or no parking and no right turn or left turning lanes. So there are no, uh, adjustment factors available. How do you calculate the bicycle compatible index and eventually the level of service? So you are already given all of these factors. First thing to find out would be to, uh, the, would be the curb lane volume and the other lane volumes. So you already have the ADT, you have standard values of K N D. So you know, the peak, our volume, you know, it's a two lane road. So you divide the peak volume by two. You get approximately the curb lane width and the other half is the other lane. So, you know, now you have calculated both of them. You know that there are no, there is no paved shoulder. So BL is zero wheel is zero automatically. There is no wit curb lane with this. Given speed is given, uh, or the 85th percentile speed is given no parking and the area is zero because it's not residential, it's more commercial and retail and there are no adjustment facts. So you plug in all these values in the BCI. A model or the BCI equation. And what you get is a BCI value of 4.2, two, or approximately 4.3. And if you go back to your standard table, you will see that 4.3 false in the BLS, the level of service of B. So then you can now say that for all the, for an average bicyclist who is bicycling on this, uh, road. Uh, for them, the compatibility index is very poor or moderately low, so other steps have to be taken. And if people ask you what steps you might have to take, then you can easily tell them that based on these equations, you have to possibly maybe put in a bicycle lender, the market, a bicycle lane of a certain width. So that will help in improving the. Compatibility index, uh, uh, uh, increasing the compatibility index, uh, lowering the compatibility index or improving the bicycle level of service. So these factors will allow you are allow the urban local bodies to know on which improvement measure that they are to bring in, in order to impact the BCA and for the Moda. BLOS. That is how you have to use your bicycle level of service.