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Module 1: Pedestrian and Bicycle Level of Services

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Bicycle Facilities and Level of Service

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In this lecture, we are going to now introduce you. Do the bicycle facilities and how to measure the level of service of bicycles. We have already looked at, uh, how to determine the level of service of pedestrian facilities and the sidewalks in an urban area. Now, we are going to introduce you to the different bicycle facilities. And how do you measure the level of service using the SEM 2000 method? So this is a little bit older method, but. Uh, we'll expose you to this method because of its ease of calculation so that you understand how to, uh, uh, what are the concepts. And once you understand them, we might get you, uh, expose you to them. Later methods had same 2010 methods as well. So we are going to, uh, tell you how to develop a level of service for exclusive bicycle parts for shared bicycle parts and on so far on street, basically Lynch. These are usually the three different categories of bicycle facilities. Part of which the level of service will be, uh, calculations will be shown. So when we talk about bicycle facilities, these are usually a modern facilities, new age facilities that we're talking about. Uh, we have been riding bicycles for many years now, but, uh, we never had, uh, uh, facilities that are dedicated to bicyclists. Bicyclists, always used to ride along with the traffic. And, uh, so the quality of the pavement and the volume of the vehicles on the, uh, on the right of way use to determine what is the level of service provided to this bicyclist. But now when there are dedicated bicycle parts, uh, that are dedicated bicycle lanes on the right of way, uh, that are newer methods of determining how level of services are calculated. When we talk about exclusive of street bicycle part, what we usually mean is that they're physically separated part from the colored roads and they're only fought bicycle traffic, right? So you might have seen some such facilities, uh, which are, uh, that is no, the traffic that is allowed other than bicycles. So they are called exclusive bicycle off street butts. Uh, that could be shared off street butts. Web bicycle and pedestrian traffic can share the same route. So if this is only bicycle by that symbol, that is shown that there could be shared bots as well, where bicyclists and pedestrians can share the same, but then there are bicycle lanes on the street, right? So these are examples of bicycle lanes on the street where you have, uh, uh, sometimes these are depicted by a different pavement color. In this case, it's green. Uh, it may be that, or it may be some other color, but it is somehow demarcating the bicycle, uh, route from the, uh, regular traffic route. Right? So there is some kind of a demarcation seeing that bicycles can take that. So they are called bicycle lanes on street, and then there are interrupted bicycle flow facilities, uh, which are designated bicycle lanes, adjacent to roads operating under fixed delays, like traffic signals and stuff. So these are, uh, more regular facilities that are along with the bicycle tracks. So there is no physical separation between these two. They may be along with the, um, regular traffic. So they may be on the road along with the regular traffic. And that interrupted just as other traffic is interrupt. Right? So essentially these are the different categories or types of bicycle facilities. Uh, in India also, we have these facilities that are coming up. They may be in neither. They are colored in red and dominant view and deal there in green. Uh, Ahmedabad has, uh, some, uh, dedicated bicycle lanes segregated from the main traffic. And so has . So these are some of the urban areas which are seeing dedicated bicycle facilities. Which are, uh, helping in, um, helping the safety, helping in the operations of the general traffic lanes as well. So now that we ended up, uh, fewer slower moving vehicles on the regular traffic lens, the condition is reducing on those lanes and by providing such dedicated facilities for bicyclists, that improving that safety. That's what, uh, what the at CMS. 2000. So TM again is the highway capacity manual developed in the United States. What it, uh, it's method is dedicated for separate bicycle path. So it develops a level of service, a method for separate bicycle parts, which are only for bicyclists, right. There cannot be, uh, uh, any other types of users on that facility, even a pedestrian so that they are off street. Share new spots. Okay. That could be shared dues as well. They could be far pedestrians, but they could be only for bicycles as well. So BLOS does not depend on the parts of it, but on the Lin. So what has been found out or what the method says is that it does not depend on the width of this, but it actually depends on whether it is demarcated into two lanes or not. So that is one of the important criteria. And understanding, uh, are in developing the bicycle level of service for share. Do spots are for dedicated bicycle lanes, three lane bicycle parts, better operation than tooling, bicycle parts, because what the third lane or the center lane does is it allows fast moving bicycles to overtake slow moving bicycles, right? That are, uh, always just like, uh, in the regular traffic lanes. You have, uh, cars or vehicles that want to move faster. Uh, versus cars and, uh, traffic that was move slower. So always the faster moving traffic wants to overtake. So in case you can provide a third bicycle lane, uh, in, in your dedicated facility, uh, that greatly allows or helps in the, uh, maneuvering of the fast moving and slow moving vehicles and, and done, uh, provides better level of service. Uh, at cm 2010 says that a minimum of 2.4 meter for a two lane and three meter for a three lane, uh, it should be used again, these are USA standards, so we can have our own standards in India as well, based on our, uh, conditions, uh, bicycling behavior and available space in our urban areas. But the point to remember is you have to set up standard width. The width has to be dead, but within that, with the more important thing, yes, you have to have dedicated Lynn's audio, be marketed links. These links help in understanding or in dividing. The bicycle traffic into upstream and downstream are one way and, uh, the other way, so you can be market a bicyclist. So bicyclists going in the update and can go in one lane and the down Derrickson can go in another lane. And if you can provide a third lane, which allows the overtaking, that is even better. So in, in measuring the, uh, bicycle level of service for off shared, shared new spots, uh, what is the first step, uh, in this method is to determine the direct snow flows that excellent flows are nothing but volume per hour divided by that. The God factor that'd be, have already told you what the peak hour factor is because Florida peak our Florida issue, which is the ratio of the peak, our floor to four times their peak 15 minute volume, right? Uh, in, in, in one hour, in, within an hour, then maybe, uh, times when the bicycle flows is peaks. And when there are times when that off peak less speed. So, if you can, then if you pick our floor is nothing but the ratio of the peak, our floor to four times peak 15 minutes. So if you know the peak 10 minutes and you will know, multiply it by four times, that will give you the entire minute or hour, and then you divided by this peak flow. So that has, that gives you the big factor. You multiply the volume by bigger factor by the directional split. Right. The ratio of the split, not so direction. For example, that's why two lanes are given. So if you multiply it by the directional split for the 70, 30, or 60 40, whatever it is, 0.6 0.7, that will give you the, that extent of flows. That is the first thing to understand. And then what it tells you to calculate what the, uh, highway capacity manual tells you to calculate is what is the hindrance? Uh, faced by these bicyclists. They have regarding this term, the term is called hindrance, which are also called events, but unit time. So what are these events? It is the number of bicyclists that are passing or the number of bicycles that are opposing you as a bicyclist, right? The number of bicycles. So these two are given by FP. And M so what FP says is the number of bicycles moving in the same direction as the bicyclist. So if you are driving or if you're riding your bicycle and the number of bicyclists that are riding in your same direction, right? This is called a passing even. So you may have to pass those, um, bicyclists. They do want me to have to either overtake him, have to pass them. So that is a type of an event. So you are. Uh, you are, uh, confronted by another bicyclist whom you have to pass or overtake that event does that discarded even the other type of event is number of bicycles, moving the opposite direction as the bicyclist. Now suddenly if there is a vehicle, a bicycle coming in the opposite direction, that is also an event for you. So you have to be careful to maneuver, uh, safely to the bicyclist that is coming in the opposite direction. Right? So these are the two events. On which the bicycle level of service depends upon. So it says that the first event is the passing event is given by a 0.8 0.18 times. Yes. That you already know what is that vs. You've got related in the, uh, previous, uh, calculation volume. Right. And the second event is called a FM in the opposite direction is two times. The O which is equal to zero when the traffic is one way, if both lanes are going in one direction, that is no burnt off, uh, calculating the opposing, uh, opposing events because, uh, there was no vehicles, right? So V O S D Florida of bicycles in the opposing direction, whereas V S is D florid of bicycles in the subject direction. And you know, how already, how to calculate floods. So. If, you know the number, if you know the number of passing events and then the number of opposing events and the total events, then the total events F B is, uh, the total events F is given by 0.5 times FM plus FP, right? If you know the total events, uh, then, but more weighted is given to opposing yearns because it has been noticed in the field that it is only when there are large number of opposing bicyclists. That you encounter that your level of service was down, right? You will see how level of service is measured eventually, but it has been noticed that when the lot of opposing traffic or opposing bicyclists in your direction of travel, then you tend to be driving either slower. You feel uncomfortable, you feel unsafe. So that is the kind that is right. That the voltage to the opposing traffic is even higher. Whereas. Uh, F B the number of passing events has it lower aspiring five times FM plus F will give you the total Brooks. These total events are, then these events per hour are then categorized into different levels. And each of these levels are associated with the letter grid, which gives you eventually the bicycle level of service. So the measure of effectiveness are the Moe. For the bicycle level of service is D total events, but our, okay. So if anybody asks you, what is the measure of effectiveness of bicycle level of service as, but I wake up as a free man. Well, 2000, you have to remember that it is total events, but so if it is, if it is a two way, two lane path, right? So two lanes. And in both. And then if you have less than 40 such events for cheap total events, the new auditor level of service, but if you have greater than one 95, what level of service and in between all of these are work similarly for a two way three lane path, you are the, uh, values of totally once per hour given here. Right. So when you used, when both bicyclists and pedestrians shared the path, now, if the next method, the next facility look at is if the part is a shared your spot for both bicyclists and pedestrians, then in that case, you're passing events are given by, uh, given by this formula. You're opposing events are given by this formula. And again, Your total events where you're opposing events have a greater wastage or given by this farmer. Right? So what this tells you is that for the passing events, now you have something called a V P S as well. Right? VP S is nothing but Florida pedestrians in the subject direction. You already, we already have told you how to calculate Florida bicycles and you're to calculate the Florida registers in a similar manner. So the formula is three times the Florida pedestrians plus 0.18 times the floated off bicyclist, which will give you the number of events in the passing direction. And similarly, the number of events in the opposing direction. It'll be given by five times the floated of the passing pedestrians. Plus two times though, the bicycles simple enough. So the highway capacity manual 2000 was the first attempt at developing such. Uh, levels of service for bicycles. So the calculations were very simple, but this, this idea, this phenomenon of incorporating the number of events, uh, which is passing events or opposing events was first introduced in the highway capacity manual. Uh, the, uh, later on, uh, uh, iterations of the highway capacity manual has further improved them, uh, into SCM has still not. Uh, in corporate, we have not yet incorporated the bicycle level of service. But we hope to do so in, in our next versions as more and more such facilities, uh, developed in our country, uh, more, more and more, um, dedicated bicycle facilities developed in our country. We also hope to develop the bicycle levels. Similar the table is given here for shared facilities. The third type of another third type of facility is the on-street lid. Right. So you can have bicycle lanes on street, but somehow demarcated from the traffic lanes, right. They're designated for bicycles. Gen generally used for one directional flow. So since they are on the, um, uh, on the street as well, so you may have one direction here and you may have another direction on the other side of the street where the street is also, uh, where the regular traffic is also flowing in the opposite direction. Uh, the picture shows here shows a bi-directional, um, uh, on-street traffic Lim on street traffic bicycle lane, but you may have one direction in one side and the other direction in a completely different site. Okay. Uh, it's uh, may vary from 1.2 to three meters, but the important thing to remember is if you have a big shoulder that paved shoulder can be easily demarcated as a bicycle lane. Unlike off-street facilities, vehicles do affect the bicycle level of service in this case of facility. So you, there is an impact, although it is segregated from, uh, the vehicular traffic, but since they are at the same plane, since they are the same grid, since they are aggravated, uh, that is some impact of these moving vehicles on the level of service of bicycles. Uh, quantifying impact of geometric and traffic conditions on the average and standard deviation of bicycle speeds of the facility. So the, when you're developing the BLOS for on street, uh, lens, you have to look at the impact the geometry and the traffic conditions have on the average and standard division of the bicycle speeds, right? Friction with regular traffic and parked vehicles. So if there is another parking lane here, right. If there are regular. Barking lane here. So it causes some friction with the bicycle misread, maybe this, uh, God has parked and now they open the door to get inside. So opening this door always makes, uh, the life of a bicycle very difficult because he, he or she may get hit by that open door. So that causes a lot of friction, right? So that friction also lowers the mean speed and higher standard deviation, uh, is, uh, seen in the speeds. Off on street bicycle lanes. So here you can see again, the number of events, uh, is the, uh, uh, measures of effectiveness, bicycle floated. Even here, the standard deviations that are given here under mean speeds are given here. So by number of events in this case is given by. Two times the bicycle florid times the standard deviation divided by the mean bicycle speed times by, okay. That is a formula to determine the number of events. So as the number of events decreases the standard deviation also degrees the standard deviation of the speed also decreases and the bicycle level of service users, this stable plus the Bro's standards for the off street from the previous slides. Right. And I mean, bicycle speed of 18 kilometers per hour. Yes. Considered. So these are all values of number of events that take place, uh, for such kind of flooded and that standard deviation. Okay. So we will give you an example and it will be easier for you to follow. So the first example says in the knots out uninterrupted flow, two lane exclusive bicycle path carries two way bicycle tracks. Right calculate the BLS for this bicycle park, given the following data because factors bind six or two lanes, the peak flow is 90 bicycles per hour, and the directional split is 70. So what do you know about it? It's an uninterrupted, uh, flow off two lanes exclusive bicycle path. So for the exclusive bicycle parts, you know, that. To calculate FP and FM. These are the formulas. However, first you need to know that, uh, that X, uh, flows in order to know the directional flows, you know, the peak hour is 90. You're given the, uh, the volume per hour is 90, you know, the peak hour factor and you know, the directional split. So not bond is 70. The southbound is 30. So you can calculate the volumes on, uh, Flores and not bond in southbound using those Florida. You can calculate, uh, the FP four, not bound in FP for southbound. So when you're using the vs, you're using the one Oh five for not bound on 45 southbound, similarly F M you can calculate for northbound and southbound, and then you can submit up to measure the total events, which are 65 events, but out in the northbound and 114, when it's up or out in the southbound. So the northbound and southbound have two different levels of service where you see that the southbound is, uh, has afforded a level of service because it has higher events, but our, that it is facing. So you can even know it far direction. So if you have two directional bi-directional flows, you can even know this, uh, level of service in two different directions. The second one. Isn't the second example is a 1.8 meter wide on street bicycle lane, which carries one way, which carries one way bicycle traffic. Uh, now if you have to calculate the bicycle, uh, BLOS given the following practice are given the following inputs. Let us see how he can do it. You know, the peak artifact I've given us by in 75, that is heavy side friction due to large vehicular volume, right? Uh, that is high driver density. I would drive as means a lot of land users that access that have access points, uh, to the main road, which will interrupt the bicycle flow as well. Uh, peak volume is one 50 bicycles, but our mean speed of vehicles. I mean, speed of bicycles is 18 kilometers per hour. And the standard deviation is 4.5 kilometers split up. So, if you, since it's a one way a bicycle thing, so P will be equal to one. So when you, uh, when you carry the, uh, calculate the peak volume, uh, because volume is converted and directional flows by just dividing this by the factor. And you know that it is 200 bicycles per hour and given the standard deviation of 4.5 kilometers per hour, Speed of 18 kilometers per hour from the table. You can know that the F has to be all right. So, uh, bicycle speed is 18, uh, bicycle florid. You're known as 200, so, you know, that's 200 here and the standard deviation is 4.5. So within 200, you can have different standard deviations. You pick the 4.5 and go here. So this will be the total number of even says 56. So if you have the total number of events as 56, and you can go back to your standard table and you can know that the level of service of that on-street facility is B. Okay. So that is how you measured the level of service of on-street facilities, as well as, uh, uh, uh, protected bicycle lanes. That can be either, uh, exclusive to bicycles or can be shared with pedestrians as well.